Lemon

Lemon
P1030323.JPG
A fruiting lemon tree. A blossom is also visible.
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Family:Rutaceae
Genus:Citrus
Species:C. limon
Binomial name
Citrus limon
(L.) Osbeck
Synonyms[1]

The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses.[2] The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.

History

Lemon external surface and cross-section

The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam (a region in northeast India), northern Burma or China.[2] A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron.[3][4]

Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no later than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome.[2] However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD.[2] The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.[2] It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150.[2]

The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century. The lemon was later introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds. It was mainly used as an ornamental plant and for medicine.[2] In the 19th century, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida and California.[2]

In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known.[2][5]

The origin of the word "lemon" may be Middle Eastern.[2] The word draws from the Old French limon, then Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, which is a cognate of Sanskrit (nimbū, “lime”).[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suurlemoen
Alemannisch: Zitrone
አማርኛ: ሎሚ
العربية: ليمون
aragonés: Limón
asturianu: Citrus limon
azərbaycanca: Limon
تۆرکجه: لیمون
বাংলা: লেবু
Bân-lâm-gú: Lê-bóng
башҡортса: Лимон
беларуская: Лімон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лімон
Bislama: Lemon
български: Лимон
Boarisch: Limauni
བོད་ཡིག: ལེ་མོན།
bosanski: Limun
brezhoneg: Suraval
català: Llimoner
Чӑвашла: Лимон
Cebuano: Citrus limon
čeština: Citron
Cymraeg: Lemon
dansk: Citron
Deutsch: Zitrone
ދިވެހިބަސް: ގޮމަށި
dolnoserbski: Citronowy bom
Ελληνικά: Λεμόνι
español: Citrus × limon
Esperanto: Citrono
euskara: Limoiondo
فارسی: لیموترش
français: Citronnier
Gaeilge: Líomóid
Gaelg: Limon
Gàidhlig: Liomaid
galego: Limoeiro
贛語: 檸檬
ગુજરાતી: લીંબુ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nên-mûng
한국어: 레몬
Հայերեն: Կիտրոն
हिन्दी: नीबू
hornjoserbsce: Citronowc
hrvatski: Limun
Ido: Citrono
Ilokano: Limon
Bahasa Indonesia: Sitrun
Ирон: Лимон
íslenska: Sítróna
italiano: Citrus limon
עברית: לימון
Basa Jawa: Lémon
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನಿಂಬೆ
Kapampangan: Lemon
ქართული: ლიმონი
қазақша: Лимон
коми: Лимон
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sitron
kurdî: Lîmon
Кыргызча: Лимон
Ladino: Limon
лезги: Лимон
Latina: Limon
latviešu: Citrons
Lëtzebuergesch: Zitroun
lingála: Ndímo
magyar: Citrom
मैथिली: नेबो
македонски: Лимон
മലയാളം: ചെറുനാരകം
Malti: Lumija
مصرى: لامون
Bahasa Melayu: Lemon
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nìng-mùng
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရှောက်
Nāhuatl: Limacuahuitl
Nederlands: Citroen (vrucht)
नेपाली: कागती
日本語: レモン
нохчийн: Лимон
Nordfriisk: Sitroon
norsk: Sitron
occitan: Citronier
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਿੰਬੂ
پنجابی: نمبو
Перем Коми: Лимон
Picard: Limon
Piemontèis: Citrus limon
português: Limão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Limon
română: Lămâi
Runa Simi: Puquy k'allku
русский: Лимон
संस्कृतम्: जम्बीरम्
sardu: Limone
Scots: Lemon
shqip: Limoni
sicilianu: Citrus limon
Simple English: Lemon
سنڌي: ليمون
slovenščina: Limona
Soomaaliga: Liin dhanaan
کوردی: لیمۆ
српски / srpski: Limun
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Limun
suomi: Sitruuna
svenska: Citron
Tagalog: Lemon
татарча/tatarça: Лимон
తెలుగు: నిమ్మ
ไทย: เลมอน
тоҷикӣ: Лиму
lea faka-Tonga: Lemani
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎴᎹᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Vé'ôhkêheóvemá'xeme
Türkçe: Limon
українська: Лимон
اردو: لیموں
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لىمون
vèneto: Limonara
Tiếng Việt: Chanh tây
文言: 檸檬
Winaray: Limon
吴语: 柠檬
ייִדיש: לימענע
粵語: 檸檬
žemaitėška: Cėtrėna
中文: 柠檬
Kabɩyɛ: Akaŋgaa