Leipzig

Leipzig
Leipzig Fockeberg Zentrum.jpg
Völkerschlachtdenkmal Nacht.jpg
Bundesverwaltungsgericht in Leipzig.jpg
Leipzig Rathaus.jpg
Universität Leipzig - Paulinum – Aula und Universitätskirche St. Pauli (Juli 2012).JPG
Gondwanaland 1 - panoramio.jpg
Flag of Leipzig
Flag
Coat of arms of Leipzig
Coat of arms
Leipzig   is located in Germany
Leipzig
Leipzig
Coordinates: 51°20′N 12°23′E / 51°20′N 12°23′E / 51.333; 12.383
CountryGermany
StateSaxony
DistrictUrban districts of Germany
Government
 • Lord MayorBurkhard Jung (SPD)
Area
 • City297.36 km2 (114.81 sq mi)
Population (2016-12-31)[2]
 • City571,088
 • Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
 • Metro1,001,220 (LUZ)[1]
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes04001-04357
Dialling codes0341
Vehicle registrationL
Websitewww.leipzig.de

Leipzig (ɡ/; German: [ˈlaɪptsɪç]) is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 582,277 inhabitants[3] (1.1 million[4] residents in the larger urban zone)[1] it is Germany's tenth most populous city.[5][6] Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain.

Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire.[7] The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing.[8] Leipzig became a major urban centre within the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined.[8]

Leipzig later played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, through events which took place in and around St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure.[9] Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank.[10][11] Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan.[12][13] Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system.[14] Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City[15] and Germany's "Boomtown".[16]

Oper Leipzig has become one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice (Venice, Italy) and the Hamburg State Opera (Hamburg, Germany). Leipzig is also home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy". It was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy". Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world.

History

Name

Leipzig in the 17th century

The name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees (British English: lime trees; U.S. English: basswood trees) stand".[17] An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was also used.[18] The name is cognate with Lipetsk (Липецк) in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia.[19]

In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig (Imperial Trade Fair City Leipzig).[20]

Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City" (Heldenstadt), in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War.[21] The common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.[22]

More recently, the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups.[23][24][25][26]

Origins

A map from Meyers Konversations-Lexikon depicting the Battle of Leipzig on 18 October 1813
Battle of Leipzig, 1813

Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi (Chronikon VII, 25) and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world.

There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleisse in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas.[27]

There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen (Barefoot Alley) is named and a monastery of Irish monks (Jacobskirche, destroyed in 1544) near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg (the old Via Regia).

The foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, and towards being the location of the Reichsgericht (Imperial Court of Justice) and the German National Library (founded in 1912).

During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres (5.0 miles) outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side.

On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns.

19th century

New City Hall of Leipzig, built in 1905

The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militias and civic associations were formed, and collaborated with churches and the press to support local and state militias, patriotic wartime mobilization, humanitarian relief and postwar commemorative practices and rituals.[28]

When it was made a terminus of the first German long-distance railway to Dresden (the capital of Saxony) in 1839, Leipzig became a hub of Central European railway traffic, with Leipzig Hauptbahnhof the largest terminal station by area in Europe. The railway station has two grand entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways.

In the 19th century, Leipzig was a centre of the German and Saxon liberal movements. The first German labor party, the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded in Leipzig on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle; about 600 workers from across Germany travelled to the foundation on the new railway. Leipzig expanded rapidly to more than 700,000 inhabitants. Huge Gründerzeit areas were built, which mostly survived both war and post-war demolition.

Augustusplatz with Leipzig Opera House, around 1900

20th century

With the opening of a fifth production hall in 1907, the Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei became the largest cotton mill company on the continent, housing over 240,000 spindles. Daily production surpassed 5 million kilograms of yarn.[29]

During the 1930s and 1940s, music was prominent throughout Leipzig. Many students attended Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy College of Music and Theatre (then named Landeskonservatorium.) However, in 1944, it was closed due to World War II. It re-opened soon after the war ended in 1945.

On May 22, 1930, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was elected mayor of Leipzig. He was well known as an opponent of the Nazi regime.[30] The city's mayor from 1930 to 1937, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler resigned in 1937 when, in his absence, his Nazi deputy ordered the destruction of the city's statue of Felix Mendelssohn. On Kristallnacht in 1938, the 1855 Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue, one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, was deliberately destroyed. Goerdeler was later executed by the Nazis on February 2, 1945.

Leipzig after bombing in the Second World War

Several thousand forced labourers were stationed in Leipzig during the Second World War.

Beginning in 1933, many Jewish citizens of Leipzig were members of the Gemeinde, a large Jewish religious community spread throughout Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In October 1935, the Gemeinde helped found the Lehrhaus (English: a house of study) in Leipzig to provide different forms of studies to Jewish students who were prohibited from attending any institutions in Germany. Jewish studies were emphasized and much of the Jewish community of Leipzig became involved.[31]

Like all other cities claimed by the Nazis, Leipzig was subject to aryanisation. Beginning in 1933 and increasing in 1939, Jewish business owners were forced to give up their possessions and stores. This eventually intensified to the point where Nazi officials were strong enough to evict the Jewish people from their own homes. They also had the power to force many of the Jews living in the city to sell their houses. Many people who sold their homes emigrated elsewhere, outside of Leipzig. Others moved to Judenhäuser, which were smaller houses that acted as ghettos, housing large groups of people.[31]

As with other cities in Europe during the Holocaust, the Jewish people of Leipzig were impacted greatly by the Nuremberg Laws. However, due to the Leipzig Trade Fair and the international attention it garnered, Leipzig was especially cautious about its public image. Despite this, the Leipzig authorities were not afraid to strictly apply and enforce anti-semitic measures.[31] Shortly before Kristallnacht, Polish Jews living in the city were expelled.[31]

On December 20, 1937, after the Nazis took control of the city, they renamed it Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, meaning the "Imperial Trade Fair City Leipzig".[32] In early 1938, Leipzig saw an increase in Zionism through Jewish citizens. Many of these Zionists attempted to flee before deportations began.[31] On October 28, 1938, Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of Polish Jews from Leipzig to Poland.[31][33]

On November 9, 1938, as part of Kristallnacht, in Gottschedstrasse (German: Gottschedstraße), now a popular dining and nightlife area in Leipzig, synagogues and businesses were set on fire.[31] Only a couple of days later, on November 11, 1938, many Jews in the Leipzig area were deported to the Buchenwald Concentration Camp.[34] As World War II came to an end, much of Leipzig was destroyed. Following the war, the Communist Party of Germany (German: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) provided aid for the reconstruction of the city.[35]

In 1933, a census recorded that over 11,000 Jews were living in Leipzig. In the 1939 census, the number had fallen to roughly 4,500, and by January 1942 only 2,000 remained. In that month, these 2,000 Jews began to be deported.[31] On July 13, 1942, 170 Jews were deported from Leipzig to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. On September 19, 1942, 440 Jews were deported from Leipzig to Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. On June 18, 1943, the remaining 18 Jews still in Leipzig were deported from Leipzig to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. According to records of the two waves of deportations to Auschwitz there were no survivors. According to records of the Theresienstadt deportation, only 53 Jews survived.[31][36]

Until late 1943, there was little threat of aerial bombings to the city. However, on the morning of December 4, 1943, the British Royal Air Force dropped over 1,000 tons of explosives, resulting in the death of nearly 1,000 civilians.[37] This bombing was the largest up to that time. Due to the close proximity of many of the buildings hit, a firestorm occurred. This prompted firefighters to rush to the city; however, the storm was too overwhelming for them. Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden, this was a largely conventional bombing with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless extensive.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Leipzig in late April 1945. The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and U.S. 69th Infantry Division fought their way into the city on April 18 and completed its capture after fierce urban action, in which fighting was often house-to-house and block-to-block, on April 19, 1945.[38] In April 1945 the Deputy Mayor of Leipzig, Ernest Lisso, his wife, daughter, and a Volkssturm Major Walter Dönicke committed suicide in Leipzig City Hall.

The United States turned the city over to the Red Army as it pulled back from the line of contact with Soviet forces in July 1945 to the designated occupation zone boundaries. Leipzig became one of the major cities of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

Following the end of World War II in 1945, Leipzig saw a slow return of Jewish people to the city.[31][39]

In the mid-20th century, the city's trade fair assumed renewed importance as a point of contact with the Comecon Eastern Europe economic bloc, of which East Germany was a member. At this time, trade fairs were held at a site in the south of the city, near the Monument to the Battle of the Nations. In October 1989, after prayers for peace at St. Nicholas Church, established in 1983 as part of the peace movement, the Monday demonstrations started as the most prominent mass protest against the East German government.[40][41] Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure.

21st century

Nowadays, Leipzig is an important economic center in Germany. Since the 2010s, the city has been celebrated by the media as a hip urban center with a very high quality of living.[42][43][44] It is often called "The new Berlin".[45] Leipzig is also Germany's fastest growing city.[46] Leipzig was the German candidate for the 2012 Summer Olympics, but was unsuccessful. After ten years of construction, the Leipzig City Tunnel opened on 14 December 2013.[47] Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, which operates in the four German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Brandenburg.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Leipzig
አማርኛ: ላይፕጽግ
العربية: لايبزيغ
aragonés: Leipzig
asturianu: Leipzig
azərbaycanca: Leypsiq
تۆرکجه: لایپزیق
Bân-lâm-gú: Leipzig
башҡортса: Лейпциг
беларуская: Лейпцыг
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ляйпцыг
български: Лайпциг
Boarisch: Leipzig
bosanski: Leipzig
brezhoneg: Leipzig
català: Leipzig
Чӑвашла: Лейпциг
čeština: Lipsko
corsu: Lipsia
Cymraeg: Leipzig
dansk: Leipzig
Deutsch: Leipzig
dolnoserbski: Lipsk
eesti: Leipzig
Ελληνικά: Λειψία
español: Leipzig
Esperanto: Leipzig
estremeñu: Leipzig
euskara: Leipzig
فارسی: لایپزیگ
français: Leipzig
Frysk: Leipzig
Gaeilge: Leipzig
Gàidhlig: Leipzig
galego: Leipzig
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Leipzig
한국어: 라이프치히
Hausa: Leipzig
Hawaiʻi: Lipekika
हिन्दी: लाइपत्सिग
hornjoserbsce: Lipsk
hrvatski: Leipzig
Ido: Leipzig
Bahasa Indonesia: Leipzig
Interlingue: Leipzig
Ирон: Лейпциг
íslenska: Leipzig
italiano: Lipsia
עברית: לייפציג
Basa Jawa: Leipzig
Kapampangan: Leipzig
ქართული: ლაიფციგი
Kiswahili: Leipzig
Кыргызча: Лейпциг
Latina: Lipsia
latviešu: Leipciga
Lëtzebuergesch: Leipzig
lietuvių: Leipcigas
Limburgs: Leipzig
lumbaart: Lipsia
македонски: Лајпциг
മലയാളം: ലീപ്സിഗ്
मराठी: लाइपझिश
Bahasa Melayu: Leipzig
монгол: Лайпциг
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လိုက်ပဆစ်မြို့
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Leipzig
Nederlands: Leipzig
Napulitano: Lipsia
Nordfriisk: Leipzig
norsk: Leipzig
norsk nynorsk: Leipzig
Novial: Leipzig
occitan: Leipzig
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Leipzig
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਾਈਪਸਿਸ਼
پنجابی: لیپزش
Papiamentu: Leipzig
Piemontèis: Lipsia
Plattdüütsch: Leipzig
polski: Lipsk
português: Leipzig
română: Leipzig
Runa Simi: Leipzig
русиньскый: Ліпско
русский: Лейпциг
sardu: Lipsia
Scots: Leipzig
Seeltersk: Leipzig
shqip: Lajpcigu
sicilianu: Lipsia
Simple English: Leipzig
سنڌي: ليپزگ
slovenčina: Lipsko
slovenščina: Leipzig
ślůnski: Lajpcik
српски / srpski: Лајпциг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Leipzig
suomi: Leipzig
svenska: Leipzig
தமிழ்: லைப்சிக்
Taqbaylit: Leipzig
татарча/tatarça: Лейпциг
Türkçe: Leipzig
Twi: Leipzig
українська: Лейпциг
اردو: لائپزش
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Léypzig
vepsän kel’: Läipcig
Tiếng Việt: Leipzig
Volapük: Leipzig
文言: 萊比錫
Winaray: Leipzig
吴语: 莱比锡
ייִדיש: לייפציג
粵語: 萊比錫
中文: 莱比锡
Lingua Franca Nova: Leipzig