Lebanon

Lebanese Republic
الجمهورية اللبنانية ( Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah
Anthem: 
Location of Lebanon
Location of Lebanon
Capital
and largest city
Beirut
33°54′N 35°32′E / 33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900; 35.533
Official languages Arabic [nb 1]
Demonym Lebanese
Government Unitary parliamentary
multi-confessionalist republic [1]
•  President
Michel Aoun [2]
Saad Hariri
Nabih Berri
Legislature Parliament
Establishment
1 September 1920
• Constitution
23 May 1926
• Independence declared
22 November 1943
• Independence (Joined UN / French Mandate ended)
24 October 1945
• Withdrawal of French forces
31 December 1946
Area
• Total
10,452 km2 (4,036 sq mi) ( 161st)
• Water (%)
1.8
Population
• 2016 estimate
6,006,668 [3] ( 112th)
• Density
560/km2 (1,450.4/sq mi) ( 21st)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$88.786 billion [4] ( 88th)
• Per capita
$19,128 [4] ( 80th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$53.915 billion [4] ( 86th)
• Per capita
$11,615 [4] ( 71st)
HDI (2015) Decrease 0.763 [5]
high ·  76th
Currency Lebanese pound ( LBP)
Time zone EET ( UTC+2)
• Summer ( DST)
EEST ( UTC+3)
Drives on the right [6]
Calling code +961 [7]
ISO 3166 code LB
Internet TLD .lb

Lebanon ( n/; Arabic: لبنان‎‎ Lubnān; Lebanese pronunciation: [lɪbˈnæːn]; French: Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic [nb 2] ( Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah; Lebanese pronunciation: [elˈʒʊmhuːɾɪjje l.ˈlɪbnæːnɪjje]; French: République libanaise), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. [8] At just 10,452 km2 (4,036 sq. mi.), it is the smallest recognized country on the entire mainland Asian continent. [nb 3] [9] [10]

The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. [11] Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/ Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years ( c. 1550–539 BC). In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.

The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence. Foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946. [12] Lebanon has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie since 1973.

Despite its small size, [13] the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world. Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking. [14] Because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, [15] and its capital, Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". [16] At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. [17] In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world, to the exclusion of the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.

Etymology

The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white," apparently from its snow-capped peaks. [18]

Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, [19] and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. [20] The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. [21]

Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit (as opposed to the mountain range) was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate ( Arabic: متصرفية جبل لبنان ‎‎; Turkish: Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı), continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon ( Arabic: دولة لبنان الكبير‎‎ Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr; French: État du Grand Liban) in 1920, and eventually in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon ( Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah) upon its independence in 1943.

Other Languages
Acèh: Lubnan
Адыгэбзэ: Ливан
адыгабзэ: Ливан
Afrikaans: Libanon
Alemannisch: Libanon
አማርኛ: ሊባኖስ
Ænglisc: Libanus
العربية: لبنان
aragonés: Liban
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܒܢܢ
arpetan: Liban
অসমীয়া: লেবানন
asturianu: El Líbanu
Avañe'ẽ: Lívano
azərbaycanca: Livan
تۆرکجه: لوبنان
bamanankan: Lubenan
বাংলা: লেবানন
Bân-lâm-gú: Lī-pa-lùn
башҡортса: Ливан
беларуская: Ліван
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лібан
भोजपुरी: लेबनान
Bikol Central: Lebanon
български: Ливан
Boarisch: Libanon
བོད་ཡིག: ལེ་པ་ནོན།
bosanski: Liban
brezhoneg: Liban
буряад: Ливан
català: Líban
Чӑвашла: Ливан
Cebuano: Libano
čeština: Libanon
chiShona: Lebanon
chiTumbuka: Lebanon
Cymraeg: Libanus
dansk: Libanon
Deutsch: Libanon
ދިވެހިބަސް: ލުބުނާން
dolnoserbski: Libanon
eesti: Liibanon
Ελληνικά: Λίβανος
español: Líbano
Esperanto: Libano
estremeñu: Líbanu
euskara: Libano
فارسی: لبنان
Fiji Hindi: Lebanon
føroyskt: Libanon
français: Liban
Frysk: Libanon
Gaeilge: An Liobáin
Gaelg: Yn Livaan
Gagauz: Livan
Gàidhlig: Leabanon
galego: Líbano
Gĩkũyũ: Lebanon
ગુજરાતી: લેબેનાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: लेबनॉन
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lì-pâ-nun
한국어: 레바논
Hausa: Lebanon
Hawaiʻi: Lepanona
Հայերեն: Լիբանան
हिन्दी: लेबनान
hornjoserbsce: Libanon
hrvatski: Libanon
Ido: Libano
Igbo: Lebanon
Ilokano: Lebanon
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: লেবানন
Bahasa Indonesia: Lebanon
interlingua: Libano
Interlingue: Libano
Ирон: Ливан
íslenska: Líbanon
italiano: Libano
עברית: לבנון
Basa Jawa: Libanon
kalaallisut: Lebanon
Kapampangan: Libano
ქართული: ლიბანი
kaszëbsczi: Liban
қазақша: Ливан
kernowek: Lebnon
Kinyarwanda: Libani
Kiswahili: Lebanoni
коми: Ливан
Kongo: Lebanon
Kreyòl ayisyen: Liban
Kurdî: Libnan
Кыргызча: Ливан
Ladino: Levanon
лезги: Ливан
لۊری شومالی: لوبنان
Latina: Libanus
latviešu: Libāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Libanon
lietuvių: Libanas
Ligure: Libano
Limburgs: Libanon
lingála: Liban
Livvinkarjala: Livanu
la .lojban.: lu'orgu'e
lumbaart: Liban
magyar: Libanon
македонски: Либан
Malagasy: Libana
മലയാളം: ലെബനാൻ
Malti: Libanu
मराठी: लेबेनॉन
მარგალური: ლიბანი
مصرى: لبنان
مازِرونی: لبنان
Bahasa Melayu: Lubnan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lé-bă-nâung
мокшень: Ливан
монгол: Ливан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လက်ဘနွန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Libano
Dorerin Naoero: Ribanon
Nederlands: Libanon
नेपाली: लेबनान
नेपाल भाषा: लेबानन
日本語: レバノン
Napulitano: Libbano
нохчийн: Ливан
Norfuk / Pitkern: Lebanon
norsk: Libanon
norsk nynorsk: Libanon
Novial: Liban
occitan: Liban
олык марий: Ливан
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲେବାନନ
Oromoo: Libaanon
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Livan
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਿਬਨਾਨ
पालि: लेबनान
پنجابی: لبنان
Papiamentu: Líbano
پښتو: ليبنان
Patois: Lebanan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: លីបង់
Picard: Liban
Piemontèis: Lìban
Tok Pisin: Lebanon
Plattdüütsch: Libanon
polski: Liban
Ποντιακά: Λίβανος
português: Líbano
Qaraqalpaqsha: Livan
qırımtatarca: Lübnan
română: Liban
Runa Simi: Libanu
русский: Ливан
саха тыла: Либан
sámegiella: Libanon
संस्कृतम्: लेबनान
Scots: Lebanon
shqip: Libani
sicilianu: Lìbbanu
Simple English: Lebanon
SiSwati: ILibhanoni
slovenčina: Libanon
slovenščina: Libanon
ślůnski: Liban
Soomaaliga: Lubnaan
کوردی: لوبنان
српски / srpski: Либан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Libanon
Basa Sunda: Libanon
suomi: Libanon
svenska: Libanon
Tagalog: Lebanon
தமிழ்: லெபனான்
Taqbaylit: Lubnan
татарча/tatarça: Ливан
తెలుగు: లెబనాన్
tetun: Líbanu
тоҷикӣ: Лубнон
Türkçe: Lübnan
Türkmençe: Liwan
удмурт: Ливан
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Lebanon
українська: Ліван
اردو: لبنان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لىۋان
vèneto: Libano
vepsän kel’: Livan
Tiếng Việt: Liban
Volapük: Libanän
Võro: Liibanon
文言: 黎巴嫩
West-Vlams: Libanon
Winaray: Libano
Wolof: Libaa
吴语: 黎巴嫩
ייִדיש: לבנון
粵語: 黎巴嫩
Zazaki: Lubnan
Zeêuws: Libanon
žemaitėška: Lėbans
中文: 黎巴嫩
डोटेली: लेवनान
Kabɩyɛ: Liibaŋ