Latin

Latin
Lingua latīna
Rome Colosseum inscription 2.jpg
Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
Pronunciation [laˈtiːna]
Native to
Ethnicity Latins
Era Vulgar Latin developed into Romance languages, 6th to 9th centuries; the formal language continued as the scholarly lingua franca of Catholic countries and medieval Europe and as the liturgical language of the Catholic Church.
Latin alphabet 
Official status
Official language in
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-1 la
ISO 639-2 lat
ISO 639-3 lat
Glottolog lati1261 [2]
Linguasphere 51-AAB-a
Roman Empire Trajan 117AD.png
Map indicating the greatest extent of the Roman Empire ( c. 117 AD) and the area governed by Latin speakers (dark red). Many languages other than Latin were spoken within the empire.
Romance 20c en-2009-15-02.png
Range of the Romance languages, the modern descendants of Latin, in Europe.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA:  [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. [3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin and French have contributed many words to the English language. Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine.

By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. [4] Late Latin is the written language from the 3rd century, and Medieval Latin the language used from the 9th century to the Renaissance which used Renaissance Latin. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.

Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently as a liturgical language.[ citation needed] It is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. [5] [6]

Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun cases, four verb conjugations, four verb principal parts, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects and two numbers.

History

The linguistic landscape of Central Italy at the beginning of Roman expansion

A number of historical phases of the language have been recognised, each distinguished by subtle differences in vocabulary, usage, spelling, morphology, and syntax. There are no hard and fast rules of classification; different scholars emphasise different features. As a result, the list has variants, as well as alternative names. In addition to the historical phases, Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the styles used by the writers of the Roman Catholic Church as well as by Protestant scholars from Late Antiquity onward.

After the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, and Germanic kingdoms took its place, the Germanic people adopted Latin as a language more suitable for legal and other formal uses.[ citation needed]

Old Latin

The earliest known form of Latin is Old Latin, which was spoken from the Roman Kingdom to the middle of the Roman Republic period. It is attested both in inscriptions and in some of the earliest extant Latin literary works, such as the comedies of Plautus and Terence. The Latin alphabet was devised from the Etruscan alphabet. The writing later changed from what was initially either a right-to-left or a boustrophedon [7] [8] script to what ultimately became a strictly left-to-right script. [9]

Classical Latin

During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, which were taught in grammar and rhetoric schools. Today's instructional grammars trace their roots to such schools, which served as a sort of informal language academy dedicated to maintaining and perpetuating educated speech. [10] [11]

Vulgar Latin

Philological analysis of Archaic Latin works, such as those of Plautus, which contain snippets of everyday speech, indicates that a spoken language, Vulgar Latin (termed sermo vulgi, "the speech of the masses", by Cicero), existed concurrently with literate Classical Latin. The informal language was rarely written, so philologists have been left with only individual words and phrases cited by classical authors and those found as graffiti. [12]

As it was free to develop on its own, there is no reason to suppose that the speech was uniform either diachronically or geographically. On the contrary, romanised European populations developed their own dialects of the language, which eventually led to the differentiation of Romance languages. [13] The Decline of the Roman Empire meant a deterioration in educational standards that brought about Late Latin, a postclassical stage of the language seen in Christian writings of the time. It was more in line with everyday speech, not only because of a decline in education but also because of a desire to spread the word to the masses.[ citation needed]

Despite dialectal variation, which is found in any widespread language, the languages of Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy retained a remarkable unity in phonological forms and developments, bolstered by the stabilising influence of their common Christian (Roman Catholic) culture. It was not until the Moorish conquest of Spain in 711 cut off communications between the major Romance regions that the languages began to diverge seriously. [14] The Vulgar Latin dialect that would later become Romanian diverged somewhat more from the other varieties, as it was largely cut off from the unifying influences in the western part of the Empire.

One key marker of whether a given Romance feature was found in Vulgar Latin is to compare it with its parallel in Classical Latin. If it was not preferred in Classical Latin, then it most likely came from the undocumented contemporaneous Vulgar Latin. For example, the Romance for "horse" (Italian cavallo, French cheval, Spanish caballo, Portuguese cavalo and Romanian cal) came from Latin caballus. However, Classical Latin used equus. Therefore caballus was most likely the spoken form. [15]

Vulgar Latin began to diverge into distinct languages by the 9th century at the latest, when the earliest extant Romance writings begin to appear. They were, throughout the period, confined to everyday speech, as Medieval Latin was used for writing.[ citation needed]

Medieval Latin

The Latin Malmesbury Bible from 1407.

Medieval Latin is the written Latin in use during that portion of the postclassical period when no corresponding Latin vernacular existed. The spoken language had developed into the various incipient Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin continued without its natural spoken base. Moreover, this Latin spread into lands that had never spoken Latin, such as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became useful for international communication between the member states of the Holy Roman Empire and its allies.

Without the institutions of the Roman empire that had supported its uniformity, medieval Latin lost its linguistic cohesion: for example, in classical Latin sum and eram are used as auxiliary verbs in the perfect and pluperfect passive, which are compound tenses. Medieval Latin might use fui and fueram instead. [16] Furthermore, the meanings of many words have been changed and new vocabularies have been introduced from the vernacular. Identifiable individual styles of classically incorrect Latin prevail. [16]

Renaissance Latin

Most 15th century printed books ( incunabula) were in Latin, with the vernacular languages playing only a secondary role. [17]

The Renaissance briefly reinforced the position of Latin as a spoken language by its adoption by the Renaissance Humanists. Often led by members of the clergy, they were shocked by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical world and the rapid loss of its literature. They strove to preserve what they could and restore Latin to what it had been and introduced the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that remained by comparing surviving manuscripts. By no later than the 15th century they had replaced Medieval Latin with versions supported by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, by scholarship, to discover what the classical language had been.[ citation needed]

New Latin

During the Early Modern Age, Latin still was the most important language of culture in Europe. Therefore, until the end of the 17th century the majority of books and almost all diplomatic documents were written in Latin. Afterwards, most diplomatic documents were written in French and later just native or other languages.

Contemporary Latin

The signs at Wallsend Metro station are in English and Latin as a tribute to Wallsend's role as one of the outposts of the Roman Empire.

The largest organisation that retains Latin in official and quasi-official contexts is the Catholic Church. Latin remains the language of the Roman Rite; the Tridentine Mass is celebrated in Latin. Although the Mass of Paul VI is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, it can be and often is said in Latin, in part or whole, especially at multilingual gatherings. It is the official language of the Holy See, the primary language of its public journal, the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, and the working language of the Roman Rota. Vatican City is also home to the world's only automatic teller machine that gives instructions in Latin. [18] In the pontifical universities postgraduate courses of Canon law are taught in Latin, and papers are written in the same language.

In the Anglican Church, after the publication of the Book of Common Prayer of 1559, a Latin edition was published in 1560 for use at universities such as Oxford and the leading "public schools" ( English private academies), where the liturgy was still permitted to be conducted in Latin [19] and there have been several Latin translations since. Most recently, a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared. [20]

Some films of ancient settings, such as Sebastiane and The Passion of the Christ, have been made with dialogue in Latin for the sake of realism. Occasionally, Latin dialogue is used because of its association with religion or philosophy, in such film/ television series as The Exorcist and Lost (" Jughead"). Subtitles are usually shown for the benefit of those who do not understand Latin. There are also songs written with Latin lyrics. The libretto for the opera-oratorio Oedipus rex by Igor Stravinsky is in Latin.

Switzerland adopts the country's Latin short name Helvetia on coins and stamps, since there is no room to use all of the nation's four official languages. For a similar reason, it adopted the international vehicle and internet code CH, which stands for Confoederatio Helvetica, the country's full Latin name.

The polyglot European Union has adopted Latin names in the logos of some of its institutions for the sake of linguistic compromise, an "ecumenical nationalism" common to most of the continent and as a sign of the continent's heritage (such as the EU Council: Consilium)

Many organizations today have Latin mottos, such as " Semper paratus" (always ready), the motto of the United States Coast Guard, and " Semper fidelis" (always faithful), the motto of the United States Marine Corps. Several of the states of the United States also have Latin mottos, such as "Qui transtulit sustinet" ("He who transplanted still sustains"), the state motto of Connecticut; " Ad astra per aspera" ("To the stars through hardships"), that of Kansas; "Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam, circumspice" ("If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you"), that of Michigan; " Salus populi suprema lex esto" ("The health of the people should be the highest law"), that of Missouri; " Esse quam videri" (To be rather than to seem), that of North Carolina; " Sic semper tyrannis" (Thus always for tyrants), that of Virginia; and " Montani semper liberi" (Mountaineers are always free), that of West Virginia. Another Latin motto is " Per ardua ad astra" (Through adversity/struggle to the stars), the motto of the Royal Air Force (RAF). Some schools adopt Latin mottos, for example Harvard University's motto is " Veritas" meaning (truth). Veritas was the goddess of truth, a daughter of Saturn, and the mother of Virtue.

Similarly Canada's motto "A mari usque ad mare" (from sea to sea) and most provincial mottos are also in Latin ( British Columbia's is Splendor Sine Occasu (splendor without diminishment)).

Occasionally, some media outlets broadcast in Latin, which is targeted at enthusiasts. Notable examples include Radio Bremen in Germany, YLE radio in Finland, and Vatican Radio & Television, all of which broadcast news segments and other material in Latin. [21]

There are many websites and forums maintained in Latin by enthusiasts. The Latin Wikipedia has more than 100,000 articles written in Latin.

Latin is taught in many high schools, especially in Europe and the Americas. It is most common in British public schools and grammar schools, the Italian liceo classico and liceo scientifico, the German Humanistisches Gymnasium and the Dutch gymnasium. In the United States, it is taught in Baltimore City College, Boston Latin Academy, Boston Latin School, Brooklyn Latin School, Central High School of Philadelphia, English High School of Boston, Norwell High School (Massachusetts), Oak Hall School, and many other public and private schools.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Латиныбзэ
Afrikaans: Latyn
Alemannisch: Lateinische Sprache
አማርኛ: ሮማይስጥ
Ænglisc: Lǣden
العربية: لغة لاتينية
aragonés: Latín
armãneashti: Latinica
arpetan: Latin
asturianu: Idioma llatín
Avañe'ẽ: Lasioñe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Latın dili
تۆرکجه: لاتین دیلی
bamanankan: Latin
Bân-lâm-gú: Latin-gí
башҡортса: Латин теле
беларуская: Лацінская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лацінская мова
भोजपुरी: लैटिन
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Latin
български: Латински език
Boarisch: Latein
བོད་ཡིག: ལ་ཏིན་སྐད།
bosanski: Latinski jezik
brezhoneg: Latin
буряад: Лата хэлэн
català: Llatí
Чӑвашла: Латин чĕлхи
Cebuano: Linatin
čeština: Latina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lengua Latin
Chi-Chewa: Chilatini
Cymraeg: Lladin
dansk: Latin
davvisámegiella: Láhtengiella
Deutsch: Latein
dolnoserbski: Łatyńšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Latèin
español: Latín
Esperanto: Latina lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga latina
euskara: Latin
Fiji Hindi: Latin
føroyskt: Latínskt mál
français: Latin
Frysk: Latyn
Gaeilge: An Laidin
Gaelg: Ladjyn
Gagauz: Latin dili
Gàidhlig: Laideann
贛語: 拉丁語
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lâ-tên-ngî
хальмг: Латин келн
한국어: 라틴어
Հայերեն: Լատիներեն
हिन्दी: लातिन भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Łaćonšćina
hrvatski: Latinski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Latin
interlingua: Lingua latin
Interlingue: Latin
isiZulu: ILatin
íslenska: Latína
italiano: Lingua latina
עברית: לטינית
Basa Jawa: Basa Latin
kalaallisut: Latiinerisut
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲ್ಯಾಟಿನ್
къарачай-малкъар: Латин тил
ქართული: ლათინური ენა
kaszëbsczi: Łacyńsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Латын тілі
kernowek: Latin
Kinyarwanda: Ikilatini
Kiswahili: Kilatini
Kongo: Kilatini
Kreyòl ayisyen: Laten
Кыргызча: Латын тили
кырык мары: Латин йӹлмӹ
Ladino: Latín
лезги: Латин чIал
لۊری شومالی: زۈن لاتين
latviešu: Latīņu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Latäin
lietuvių: Lotynų kalba
Limburgs: Latien
lingála: Latina
Livvinkarjala: Latinan kieli
lumbaart: Latin
magyar: Latin nyelv
македонски: Латински јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny latina
മലയാളം: ലാറ്റിൻ
მარგალური: ლათინური ნინა
مصرى: لاتينى
مازِرونی: لاتین
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Latin
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lá-dĭng-ngṳ̄
Mirandés: Lhéngua lhatina
монгол: Латин хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လက်တင်ဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Latintlahtolli
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Latin
Nederlands: Latijn
Nedersaksies: Latien
नेपाली: रोमन भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: ल्याटिन भाषा
日本語: ラテン語
Napulitano: Lengua latina
нохчийн: Латинан мотт
Nordfriisk: Latiinsk
Norfuk / Pitkern: Leten
norsk: Latin
norsk nynorsk: Latin
Nouormand: Latîn
Novial: Latinum
occitan: Latin
олык марий: Латин йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lotin tili
Pälzisch: Ladain
Pangasinan: Salitan Latino
پنجابی: لاطینی
Papiamentu: Latin
Patois: Latn
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាឡាតាំង
Picard: Latin
Piemontèis: Lenga latin-a
Tok Pisin: Tok Latin
Plattdüütsch: Latiensche Spraak
polski: Łacina
português: Latim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Latın tili
qırımtatarca: Latin tili
Ripoarisch: Latting
română: Limba latină
rumantsch: Latin
Runa Simi: Latin simi
русиньскый: Латиньскый язык
саха тыла: Латыын тыла
संस्कृतम्: लातिनी
Scots: Laitin
Seeltersk: Latiensk
sicilianu: Lingua latina
සිංහල: ලතින්
Simple English: Latin
slovenčina: Latinčina
slovenščina: Latinščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Латиньскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Łaćina
Soomaaliga: Af-Laatiin
српски / srpski: Латински језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Latinski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Latin
suomi: Latina
svenska: Latin
Tagalog: Wikang Latin
தமிழ்: இலத்தீன்
татарча/tatarça: Латин теле
తెలుగు: లాటిన్
Türkçe: Latince
Türkmençe: Latyn dili
удмурт: Латин кыл
українська: Латинська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لاتىن تىلى
vepsän kel’: Latinan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Latinh
Volapük: Latänapük
walon: Latén
文言: 拉丁語
West-Vlams: Latyn
Winaray: Linatin
吴语: 拉丁文
ייִדיש: לאטיין
Yorùbá: Èdè Látìnì
粵語: 拉丁文
Zazaki: Latinki
Zeêuws: Latijn
žemaitėška: Luotīnu kalba
中文: 拉丁语