Laridae

Laridae
Larus argentatus ad.jpg
European herring gull
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Suborder: Lari
Family: Laridae
Rafinesque, 1815
Genera

See text.

Laridae is a family of seabirds in the order Charadriiformes that includes the gulls, terns and skimmers. It includes around 100 species arranged into 23 genera. They are an adaptable group of mostly aerial birds found worldwide.

Taxonomy

Laridae phylogeny

 










Onychoprion



Sterna




Thalasseus






Chlidonias







Gelochelidon



Hydroprogne




Larosterna






Phaetusa



Sternula









Larus



Rissa




Xema





Creagrus



Rhodostethia





Rhynchops





Gygis




Anous



Part of the cladogram of the genera in the order Charadriiformes based on the analysis by Baker and colleagues published in 2007. [1]

The family Laridae was introduced (as Laridia) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. [2] [3] Historically, Laridae were restricted to the gulls, while the terns were placed in a separate family, Sternidae, and the skimmers in a third family, Rynchopidae. [4] The noddies were traditionally included in Sternidae. In 1990 Charles Sibley and Jon Ahlquist included auks and skuas in a broader family Laridae. [5]

A molecular phylogenetic study by Baker and colleagues published in 2007 found that the noddies in the genus Anous formed a sister group to a clade containing the gulls, skimmers and the other terns. [1] To create a monophyletic family group, Laridae was expanded to include the genera that had previously been in Sternidae and Rynchopidae. [6] [7]

Baker and colleagues found that the Laridae lineage diverged from a lineage that gave rise to both the skuas ( Stercorariidae) and auks ( Alcidae) before the end of the Cretaceous in the age of dinosaurs. They also found that the Laridae themselves began expanding in the early Paleocene, around 60 million years ago. [1] The German palaeontologist Gerald Mayr has questioned the validity of these early dates and suggested that inappropriate fossils were used in calibrating the molecular data. The earliest charadriiform fossils date only from the late Eocene, around 35 million years ago. [8]

Anders Ödeen and colleagues investigated the development of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds, by looking for the SWS1 opsin gene in various species; as gulls were the only shorebirds known to have developed the trait. They discovered that the gene was present in the gull, skimmer and noddy lineages but not the tern lineage. They also recovered the noddies as an early lineage, though the evidence was not strong. [9]

Noddies [a]

Skimmers

Gulls

Terns

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Хытхьарыкъуэ
Afrikaans: Meeue
العربية: نورسية
azərbaycanca: Qağayılar
বাংলা: গাঙচিল
башҡортса: Сарлаҡтар
беларуская: Чайкавыя
བོད་ཡིག: སྐྱར་མོ།
bosanski: Galeb
brezhoneg: Laridae
català: Làrid
Cebuano: Laridae
čeština: Rackovití
Cymraeg: Gwylan
dansk: Mågefugle
Deutsch: Möwen
Diné bizaad: Tónteel tsídii
eesti: Kajaklased
Ελληνικά: Γλάρος
эрзянь: Транзей
español: Laridae
Esperanto: Mevo
euskara: Kaio
føroyskt: Mási
français: Laridae
Frysk: Seefûgels
furlan: Cocâl
Gaeilge: Faoileán
Gàidhlig: Faoileag
galego: Gaivota
ગુજરાતી: ધોમડો
한국어: 갈매기과
Հայերեն: Որորներ
hrvatski: Galebi
Bahasa Indonesia: Camar
interlingua: Laridae
íslenska: Máfar
italiano: Laridae
עברית: שחפיים
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಗಲ್
Kiswahili: Shakwe
коми: Каля
Kurdî: Şehing
latviešu: Kaiju dzimta
lietuvių: Kiriniai
Ligure: Ochin de mâ
Limburgs: Miewe
македонски: Галеби
Bahasa Melayu: Burung Camar
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngṳ̀-ĭng
мокшень: Транзи
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဇင်ယော်
Nederlands: Meeuwen (vogels)
Nedersaksies: Mieuwen
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᒋᔮᐢᐠ
日本語: カモメ科
Nordfriisk: Kuben
norsk bokmål: Måkefugler
norsk nynorsk: Måsar
Nouormand: Mauve
occitan: Laridae
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Baliqchilar
Plattdüütsch: Meven
polski: Mewowate
português: Larídeos
română: Pescăruș
Runa Simi: Qiwlla
русиньскый: Мевовы
русский: Чайковые
sámegiella: Báiskelottit
Scots: Maw (bird)
sicilianu: Laridae
Simple English: Gull
slovenčina: Čajkovité
slovenščina: Galebi
српски / srpski: Галебови
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Galeb
suomi: Lokit
svenska: Måsfåglar
Tagalog: Bako
татарча/tatarça: Акчарлаклар
тоҷикӣ: Ёҳу
Tsetsêhestâhese: Mâhóomoehá-vé'késo
Türkçe: Martı
українська: Мартинові
vèneto: Cocal
vepsän kel’: Kajag
Tiếng Việt: Mòng biển
West-Vlams: Mêeuwn
Winaray: Laridae
粵語:
Zeêuws: Meêuwen
中文: