Lamboing is first mentioned in 1179 as Lamboens though this document is thought to be a forgery from the late 12th Century. In 1235 it was mentioned as Lamboens.
The noble de Lamboing family was first mentioned in a document from 1255. But very little is known about this family. In 1423 the de Vaumarcus family were given the village as a fief, which they held until 1509. In that year the village was acquired by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel who ruled over the village for almost three centuries. After the 1798 French invasion, Lamboing became part of the French Département of Mont-Terrible. Three years later, in 1800 it became part of the Département of Haut-Rhin. After Napoleon's defeat and the Congress of Vienna, Lamboing was assigned to the Canton of Bern in 1815. A village school house was built in 1863. During the late 19th century a watchmaker's workshop opened in the village. It was acquired by the Ebauches SA company in 1926 and continued making components for watches until 1981. Beginning in the 1970s the village's population began to grow as commuters settled in Lamboing.
It has always been part of the parish of Diesse. When Diesse converted to the new faith of the Protestant Reformation between 1530 and 1554, Lamboing converted as well.