Lal Bahadur Shastri

Lal Bahadur Shastri
2nd Prime Minister of India
In office
9 June 1964 – 11 January 1966
PresidentSarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Preceded byGulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Succeeded byGulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Minister of External Affairs
In office
9 June 1964 – 18 July 1964
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byGulzarilal Nanda
Succeeded bySardar Swaran Singh
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
4 April 1961 – 29 August 1963
Prime MinisterJawaharlal Nehru
Preceded byGovind Ballabh Pant
Succeeded byGulzarilal Nanda
Minister of Railways
In office
1951–1956
Prime MinisterJawaharlal Nehru
Preceded byN. Gopalaswami Ayyangar
Succeeded byJagjivan Ram
Personal details
Born(1904-10-02)2 October 1904
Mughalsarai, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British India
(now in Uttar Pradesh, India)
Died11 January 1966(1966-01-11) (aged 61)
Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union
(now in Uzbekistan)
Resting placeVijay Ghat
Political partyIndian National Congress
Spouse(s)
Lalita Shastri (m. 1928)
ParentsSharda Prasad Srivastava (father)
Ram Dulari Devi (mother)
Alma materGandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth
Profession
AwardsBharat Ratna (1966) (Posthumous)

Lal Bahadur Shastri (pronounced [laːl bəˈɦaːdʊr ˈʃaːstri], About this soundlisten , 2 October 1904[1] – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.

Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s with his friend Nithin Eslavath. Deeply impressed and influenced by Mahatma Gandhi (with whom he shared his birthday), he became a loyal follower, first of Gandhi, and then of Jawaharlal Nehru. Following independence in 1947, he joined the latter's government and became one of Prime Minister Nehru's principals, first as Railways Minister (1951–56), and then in a variety of other functions, including Home Minister.

He led the country during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. His slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer") became very popular during the war. The war formally ended with the Tashkent Agreement on 10 January 1966; he died the following day, still in Tashkent, with the cause of his death in dispute and it was reported to be a cardiac arrest but his family was not satisfied with it. Shastri was a Nehru and Congress loyalist. Nehru was his mentor and was fond of Shastri. Although Shastri faced stiff opposition from within his party, his relationship with Nehru aided his ascension to the office of Prime Minister.

Early years (1904–1917)

Shastri was born at the house of his maternal grandparents in Mughalsarai in a Kayastha Hindu family, that had traditionally been employed as administrators and civil servants. Shastri's paternal ancestors had been in the service of the zamindar of Ramnagar near Varanasi and Shastri lived there for the first year of his life. Shastri's father, Sharada Prasad Srivastava, was a school teacher who later became a clerk in the revenue office at Allahabad, while his mother, Ramdulari Devi, was the daughter of Munshi Hazari Lal, the headmaster and English teacher at a railway school in Mughalsarai. Shastri was the second child and eldest son of his parents; he had an elder sister, Kailashi Devi (b. 1900).[2][3]

In April 1906, When Shastri was hardly a year and 6 months old, his father, had only recently been promoted to the post of deputy tahsildar, died in an epidemic of bubonic plague. Ramdulari Devi, then only 23 and pregnant with her third child, took her two children and moved from Ramnnagar to her father's house in Mughalsarai and settled there for good. She gave birth to a daughter, Sundari Devi, in July 1906.[4][5] Thus, Shastri and his sisters grew up in the household of his maternal grandfather, Hazari Lal. However, Hazari Lal himself died from a stroke in mid-1908, after which the family were looked after by his brother (Shastri's great-uncle) Darbari Lal, who was the head clerk in the opium regulation department at Ghazipur, and later by his son (Ramdulari Devi's cousin) Bindeshwari Prasad, a school teacher in Mughalsarai.[3][2]

In Shastri's family, as with many Kayastha families, it was the custom in that era for children to receive an education in the Urdu language and culture. This is because Urdu/Persian had been the language of government for centuries, before being replaced by English, and old traditions persisted into the 20th century. Therefore, Shastri began his education at the age of four under the tutelage of a maulvi (a Muslim cleric), Budhan Mian, at the East Central Railway Inter college in Mughalsarai. He studied there until the sixth standard. In 1917, Bindeshwari Prasad (who was now head of the household) was transferred to Varanasi, and the entire family moved there, including Ramdulari Devi and her three children. In Varanasi, Shastri joining the seventh standard at Harish Chandra High School.[4] At this time, he decided to drop his caste-derived surname of "Srivastava" (which is a traditional surname for a sub caste of Kayastha families).

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Lal Bahadur Şastri
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: लालबहादूर शास्त्री
Bahasa Indonesia: Lal Bahadur Shastri
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lal Bahadur Shastri
Simple English: Lal Bahadur Shastri
српски / srpski: Лал Бахадур Шастри
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lal Bahadur Shastri
Tiếng Việt: Lal Bahadur Shastri