Lake Toba

Lake Toba
Danau Toba  ( Indonesian)
Tao Toba  ( Batak Toba)
Indonesia - Lake Toba (26224127503).jpg
A view of Lake Toba and Samosir Island from Sipisopiso
Location North Sumatra, Indonesia
Coordinates 2°41′N 98°53′E / 2°41′N 98°53′E / 2.68; 98.88
Type Volcanic/ tectonic
Primary outflows Asahan River
Basin countries Indonesia
Max. length 100 km (62 mi)
Max. width 30 km (19 mi)
Surface area 1,130 km2 (440 sq mi)
Average depth 500 m (1,600 ft)
Max. depth 505 m (1,657 ft) [1]
Water volume 240 km3 (58 cu mi)
Surface elevation 905 m (2,969 ft)
Islands Samosir
Settlements Ambarita, Pangururan
References [1]

Lake Toba ( Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a large natural lake occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is about 100 kilometres (62 mi) long, 30 kilometres (19 mi) wide, and up to 505 metres (1,657 ft) deep. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2°53′N 98°31′E / 2.88°N 98.52°E / 2.88; 98.52 to 2°21′N 99°06′E / 2°21′N 99°06′E / 2.35; 99.1. It is the largest lake in Indonesia and also the largest volcanic lake in the world. [1]

Lake Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, [2] [3] [4] representing a climate-changing event. It is the largest known explosive eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations; it killed most humans living at that time and is believed to have created a population bottleneck in central east Africa and India, which affects the genetic make up of the human worldwide population to the present. [5]

It has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C (5.4 to 9.0 °F), and up to 15 °C (27 °F) in higher latitudes. Additional studies in Lake Malawi in East Africa show significant amounts of ash being deposited from the Toba eruptions, even at that great distance, but little indication of a significant climatic effect in East Africa. [6]

Geology

Batu Gantung (Hanging stone) in Lake Toba

The Toba caldera complex in Northern Sumatra, comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the Sumatran "volcanic front." The fourth and youngest caldera is the world's largest Quaternary caldera (100 by 30 km (62 by 19 mi)) and intersects the three older calderas. An estimated 2,800 km3 (670 cu mi) of dense-rock equivalent pyroclastic material, known as the youngest Toba tuff, was released during one of the largest explosive volcanic eruptions in recent geological history. Following this eruption, a resurgent dome formed within the new caldera, joining two half-domes separated by a longitudinal graben. [3]

At least four cones, four stratovolcanoes, and three craters are visible in the lake. The Tandukbenua cone on the northwestern edge of the caldera has only sparse vegetation, suggesting a young age of several hundred years. Also, the Pusubukit (Hill Center) volcano (1971 metres above sea level) on the south edge of the caldera is solfatarically active. [7]

Other Languages
العربية: بحيرة توبا
বাংলা: টোবা হ্রদ
беларуская: Тоба
català: Llac Toba
Чӑвашла: Тоба (кӳлĕ)
čeština: Toba
Cymraeg: Llyn Toba
dansk: Tobasøen
Deutsch: Tobasee
eesti: Toba järv
Ελληνικά: Λίμνη Τόμπα
español: Lago Toba
Esperanto: Toba
français: Lac Toba
한국어: 토바 호
Հայերեն: Տոբա
हिन्दी: तोबा झील
hrvatski: Toba (jezero)
Bahasa Indonesia: Danau Toba
íslenska: Tobavatn
italiano: Lago Toba
עברית: אגם טובה
Basa Jawa: Tlaga Toba
ქართული: ტობა (ტბა)
latviešu: Tobas ezers
magyar: Toba-tó
македонски: Тоба (езеро)
മലയാളം: ടോബ തടാകം
მარგალური: ტობა (ტობა)
Bahasa Melayu: Danau Toba
Baso Minangkabau: Danau Toba
Nederlands: Tobameer
日本語: トバ湖
norsk: Toba
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤੋਬਾ ਝੀਲ
português: Lago Toba
русский: Тоба (озеро)
Scots: Loch Toba
Simple English: Lake Toba
slovenčina: Toba (jazero)
српски / srpski: Тоба (језеро)
Basa Sunda: Dano Toba
suomi: Toba
svenska: Tobasjön
Tagalog: Lawa ng Toba
தமிழ்: தோபா ஏரி
татарча/tatarça: Тоба (күл)
українська: Тоба (озеро)
Tiếng Việt: Hồ Toba
中文: 多巴湖