Lahore

Lahore
لہور
لاہور
Metropolitan Area
Clockwise from the top: Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Museum, Badshahi Mosque, Quaid-e-Azam Library, Minar-e-Pakistan.
Official logo of Lahore
Emblem
Lahore is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Lahore
Lahore
Location in Pakistan
Lahore is located in Pakistan
Lahore
Lahore
Lahore (Pakistan)
Lahore is located in Asia
Lahore
Lahore
Lahore (Asia)
Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972; 74.34361
Dialing code042[6]
GDP/PPP$160 billion (2017)[7]
HDI877 (data for 2014–2015) Increase[8]
HDI Categoryvery high

Lahore (ɔːr/; Urdu: لاہور‎; Punjabi: لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.[5] The city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $127 billion (PPP) as of 2017.[9][10] Lahore is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region,[11][12][13] and is one of Pakistan's most socially liberal,[14] progressive,[15] and cosmopolitan cities.[16]

Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of Persian Emperor Nader Shah in 1739, and fell into a period of decay while being contested between different powers. Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and regained much of its lost grandeur.[17] Lahore was then annexed to the British Empire, and made capital of British Punjab.[18] Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence.[19] Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. It is also the largest city of the entire Punjab region of both Pakistan and India.

Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan.[12] Lahore is a major centre for Pakistan's publishing industry, and remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is home to the annual Lahore Literary Festival, considered to be one of South Asia's premier cultural events.[20] The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan,[21] with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city.[22] Lahore is also home to Pakistan's film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali music.[23] The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry,[23][24] with major attractions including the famed Walled City, numerous Sikh shrines, and the Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques. Lahore is also home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[24]

Etymology

The origins of Lahore's name are unclear. Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim historians as Lōhar, Lōhār, and Rahwar.[25] Al-Biruni referred to the city as Lohāwar in his 11th century work, Qanun,[25] while the poet Amir Khusrow, who lived during the Delhi Sultanate, recorded the city's name as Lāhanūr.[26] Medieval Rajput sources recorded the city's name as Lavkot.[26]

One theory suggests that Lahore’s name is a corruption of the word Ravāwar, as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from Sanskrit.[27] Ravāwar is the simplified pronunciation of the name Iravatyāwar - a name possibly derived from the Ravi River, known as the Iravati River in the Vedas.[27][28] Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar, meaning "blacksmith."[29]

According to Hindu tradition,[30] Lahore's name derives from Lavpur or Lavapuri ("City of Lava"),[31] and is said to have been founded by Prince Lava,[32] the son of Sita and Rama. The same account attributes the founding of nearby Kasur by his twin brother Prince Kusha,[33] Historic record shows, however, that Kasur was founded by Pashtun migrants in 1525.[34]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Lahore
አማርኛ: ለሖር
العربية: لاهور
asturianu: Lahore
azərbaycanca: Lahor
تۆرکجه: لاهور
বাংলা: লাহোর
Bân-lâm-gú: Lahore
башҡортса: Лахор
беларуская: Лахор
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лагор
भोजपुरी: लाहौर
български: Лахор
bosanski: Lahore
brezhoneg: Lahore
буряад: Лахор
català: Lahore
čeština: Láhaur
Cymraeg: Lahore
dansk: Lahore
Deutsch: Lahore
eesti: Lahore
Ελληνικά: Λαχόρη
español: Lahore
Esperanto: Lahore
euskara: Lahore
فارسی: لاهور
Fiji Hindi: Lahore
français: Lahore
Gaeilge: Lahore
galego: Lahore
ગુજરાતી: લાહોર
한국어: 라호르
Hausa: Lahore
հայերեն: Լահոր
हिन्दी: लाहौर
hrvatski: Lahore
Ido: Lahore
Bahasa Indonesia: Lahore
Interlingue: Lahore
íslenska: Lahore
italiano: Lahore
עברית: לאהור
Basa Jawa: Lahore
kalaallisut: Lahore
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲಾಹೋರ್
ქართული: ლაჰორი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: لوہوٗر
Кыргызча: Лахор
Latina: Lahorium
latviešu: Lahora
lietuvių: Lahoras
magyar: Lahor
македонски: Лахор
മലയാളം: ലാഹോർ
Māori: Lahore
मराठी: लाहोर
მარგალური: ლაჰორი
مازِرونی: لاهور
Bahasa Melayu: Lahore
монгол: Лахор
Nederlands: Lahore
नेपाली: लाहोर
日本語: ラホール
нохчийн: Лахор
norsk: Lahore
norsk nynorsk: Lahore
олык марий: Лахор
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lohur
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਾਹੌਰ
پنجابی: لہور
پښتو: لاهور
polski: Lahaur
português: Lahore
română: Lahore
русский: Лахор
संस्कृतम्: लाहोर
Scots: Lahore
shqip: Lahore
Simple English: Lahore
سنڌي: لاھور
slovenčina: Láhaur
ślůnski: Lahaur
کوردی: لاھۆر
српски / srpski: Лахор
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lahore
suomi: Lahore
svenska: Lahore
தமிழ்: லாகூர்
татарча/tatarça: Lahor
తెలుగు: లాహోర్
Türkçe: Lahor
українська: Лахор
اردو: لاہور
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Lahor
vepsän kel’: Lahor
Tiếng Việt: Lahore
Winaray: Lahore
吴语: 拉合尔
Yorùbá: Lahore
粵語: 拉合爾
中文: 拉合爾