Ladin language

Ladin
Ladin
Ladin2 K.jpg
Native toItalyDolomite Mountains, Non Valley
RegionTrentino-South Tyrol
Veneto
Native speakers
41,129 (2006[1] - 2011[2][3])
Dialects
Official status
Regulated byThe office for Ladin language planning
Ladin Cultural Centre Majon di Fascegn
Istitut Ladin Micurà de Rü
Istituto Ladin de la Dolomites
Language codes
ISO 639-3lld
Glottologladi1250[4]
Linguasphere51-AAA-l
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Languages of
South Tyrol.
Majorities per municipality in 2011:
Language distribution in South Tyrol, Italy 2011, en.png
Languages of
Trentino.
Percentage per municipality in 2011:
Language distribution Trentino 2011.png
Languages of
the Province of Belluno.
Recognized Ladin area
Lingua ladina in provincia di Belluno.svg

Ladin (n/[5] or n/;[6] Ladin: Ladin, Italian: Ladino, German: Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people. It exhibits similarities to Swiss Romansh and Friulian.

The precise extension of the Ladin language area is the subject of scholarly debates. A more narrow perspective includes only the dialects of the valleys around the Sella group, while wider definitions comprise the dialects of adjacent valleys in the Province of Belluno and even dialects spoken in the northwestern Trentino.[7][8]

A standard written variety of Ladin (Ladin Dolomitan) has been developed by the Office for Ladin Language Planning as a common communication tool across the whole Ladin-speaking region,[9] but it is not popular among Ladin speakers.

Ladin should not be confused with Ladino (also called Judeo-Spanish), which, although also Romance, is derived from Old Spanish.

Geographic distribution

Contraction of the area of the Rhaeto-Romance languages

Ladin is recognized as a minority language in 54 Italian municipalities[10] belonging to the provinces of South Tyrol, Trentino and Belluno. It is not possible to assess the exact number of Ladin speakers, because only in the provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino are the inhabitants asked to identify their native language in the general census of the population, which takes place every 10 years.

South Tyrol

In the 2011 census, 20,548 inhabitants of South Tyrol declared Ladin as their native language.[2] Ladin is an officially recognised language, taught in schools and used in public offices (in written as well as spoken form).[11]

The following municipalities of South Tyrol have a majority of Ladin speakers:

Ladin name Inhabitants Ladin speakers
Badia 3366 94.07%
Corvara 1320 89.70%
La Val 1299 97.66%
Mareo 2914 92.09%
Urtijëi 4659 84.19%
San Martin de Tor 1733 96.71%
Santa Cristina Gherdëina 1873 91.40%
Sëlva 2664 89.74%
Kastelruth 6465 15.37%[12]
Province total 505,067[13] 4.53%

Trentino

In the 2011 census, 18,550 inhabitants of Trentino declared Ladin as their native language.[3] It is prevailing in the following municipalities of Trentino in the Fassa Valley, where Ladin is recognized as a minority language:

Italian name Ladin name Inhabitants Ladin speakers Percentage
Campitello di Fassa Ciampedel 740 608 82.2%
Canazei Cianacei 1,911 1,524 79.7%
Mazzin Mazin 493 381 77.3%
Moena Moena 2,698 2,126 78.8%
Pozza di Fassa Poza 2,138 1,765 82.6%
Soraga Sorega 736 629 85.5%
Vigo di Fassa Vich 1,207 1,059 87.7%
Province total 526,510 18,550 3.5%

The Nones language in the Non Valley and the related Solandro language found in the Sole Valley are Gallo-Romance languages and often grouped together into a single linguistic unit due to their similarity. They are spoken in 38 municipalities but have no official status. Their more precise classification is uncertain. Both dialects show a strong resemblance to Trentinian dialect and Eastern Lombard, and scholars debate whether they are Ladin dialects or not.

About 23% of the inhabitants from Val di Non and 1.5% from Val di Sole declared Ladin as their native language at the 2011 census. The number of Ladin speakers in those valleys amounts to 8,730, outnumbering the native speakers in the Fassa Valley.[14] In order to stress the difference between the dialects in Non and Fassa valleys, it has been proposed to distinguish between ladins dolomitiches (Dolomitic Ladinians) and ladins nonejes (Non Valley Ladinians) at the next census.[15]

Province of Belluno

There is no linguistic census in the province of Belluno, but the number of Ladin speakers has been estimated using a 2006 survey. In this area, there are about 1,166 people who speak the standard Ladin and 865 who speak the dialect of Ladin, so out of 8,495 inhabitants they are the 23.9%. They live in the part of the province that was part of the County of Tyrol until 1918, comprising the communes of Cortina d'Ampezzo (15.6% Ladin), Colle Santa Lucia (50.6% Ladin) and Livinallongo del Col di Lana (54.3% Ladin).[1]

Italian name Ladin name Inhabitants Ladin speakers Percentage
Cortina d'Ampezzo Anpezo 6,630 1,034 15.6%
Colle Santa Lucia Col 434 220 50.6%
Livinallongo del Col di Lana Fodóm 1,431 777 54.3%
Total 8,495 2,031 23.9%

The provincial administration of Belluno has enacted to identify Ladin as a minority language in additional municipalities. Those are: Agordo, Alleghe, Auronzo di Cadore, Borca di Cadore, Calalzo di Cadore, Canale d'Agordo, Cencenighe Agordino, Cibiana di Cadore, Comelico Superiore, Danta di Cadore, Domegge di Cadore, Falcade, Forno di Zoldo, Gosaldo, La Valle Agordina, Lozzo di Cadore, Ospitale di Cadore, Perarolo di Cadore, Pieve di Cadore, Rivamonte Agordino, Rocca Pietore, San Nicolò di Comelico, San Pietro di Cadore, San Tomaso Agordino, San Vito di Cadore, Santo Stefano di Cadore, Selva di Cadore, Taibon Agordino, Vallada Agordina, Valle di Cadore, Vigo di Cadore, Vodo di Cadore, Voltago Agordino, Zoldo Alto, Zoppè di Cadore. Ladinity in the province of Belluno is more ethnic than linguistic. The varieties spoken by Ladin municipalities are Venetian alpine dialects, which are grammatically no different to those spoken in municipalities that did not declare themselves as Ladin.[16] Their language is called Ladino Bellunese.[17]

All Ladin dialects spoken in the province of Belluno, including those in the former Tyrolean territories, enjoy a varying degree of influence by Venetian.[18]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Ladinies
Alemannisch: Ladinische Sprache
العربية: لغة لادينية
aragonés: Idioma ladín
arpetan: Ladin
asturianu: Idioma ladín
Boarisch: Ladinisch
brezhoneg: Ladineg
català: Ladí
čeština: Ladinština
Cymraeg: Ladineg
español: Idioma ladino
Esperanto: Ladina lingvo
فارسی: لادین
français: Ladin
Gaeilge: An Laidinis
Gaelg: Ladinish
Gàidhlig: Laidin
한국어: 라딘어
hrvatski: Ladinski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Ladin
italiano: Lingua ladina
עברית: לדינית
ქართული: ლადინური ენა
Kiswahili: Kiladino
latviešu: Ladīnu valoda
lietuvių: Ladinų kalba
lumbaart: Lengua ladina
magyar: Ladin nyelv
მარგალური: ლადინური ნინა
Nederlands: Ladinisch
Nedersaksies: Ladinies
日本語: ラディン語
Nordfriisk: Ladiins spriak
norsk: Ladinsk
occitan: Ladin
олык марий: Ладин йылме
Piemontèis: Lenga ladin-a
română: Limba ladină
rumantsch: Lingua ladina
Scots: Ladin leid
Seeltersk: Ladinisk
sicilianu: Lingua ladina
slovenčina: Ladinčina
српски / srpski: Ладински језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ladinski jezik
svenska: Ladinska
Tagalog: Wikang Ladin
українська: Ладинська мова
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ladin
粵語: 拉登文
žemaitėška: Ladėnu kalba
中文: 拉登語
Lingua Franca Nova: Ladin (lingua)