Krishna

Krishna
God of Compassion, Tenderness and Love[1][2]
A statue of Krishna
Krishna statue at the Sri Mariamman Temple, Singapore
AffiliationSvayam Bhagavan, Paramatman, Brahman, Vishnu, Radha Krishna[3][4]
AbodeGoloka Vrindavana, Gokula, Dwarka
WeaponSudarshana Chakra
Kaumodaki
BattlesKurukshetra War
TextsBhagavata Purana, Harivamsa, Vishnu Purana, Mahabharata (Bhagavad Gita), Gita Govinda
FestivalsKrishna Janmashtami, Holi
Personal information
BornMathura, Surasena (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)[5]
ConsortsRadha; Rukmini, Satyabhama and other Ashtabharyas, and 16,000–16,100 other junior queens[6][note 1]
ParentsDevaki (mother) and Vasudeva (father), Yashoda (foster mother) and Nanda Baba (foster father)
SiblingsBalarama, Subhadra
DynastySomavansha (Yaduvanshi)

Krishna (ə/,[8] [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] (About this sound listen); Sanskrit: कृष्ण, translit. Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshiped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and also as the supreme God in his own right.[9] He is the god of compassion, tenderness, and love in Hinduism,[1][2] and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities.[10] Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar.[11]

The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are generally titled as Krishna Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical, theological, and mythological texts.[12] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and as the universal supreme being.[13] His iconography reflects these legends, and shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.[14]

The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature.[15] In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, and this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism. These sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement.[16] Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri dance.[17][18] He is a pan-Hindu god, but is particularly revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, in the Jagannatha aspect in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal,[19] Dwarka and Junagadh in Gujarat, in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, Maharashtra, Udupi in Karnataka, Nathdwara in Rajasthan[20] and Guruvayur in Kerala.[21] Since the 1960s the worship of Krishna has also spread to the Western world and to Africa, largely due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON).[22]

Names and epithets

The name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, which is primarily an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue".[23] The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening".[23] The name is also interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive".[24]

As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets, and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; Govinda "chief herdsman",[25] and Gopala "Protector of the 'Go', which means "Soul" or the cows".[26][27] Some names for Krishna hold regional importance; Jagannatha, found in Puri Hindu temple, is a popular incarnation in Odisha state and nearby regions of eastern India.[28][29][30]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Krisjna
Alemannisch: Krishna
العربية: كريشنا
অসমীয়া: কৃষ্ণ
asturianu: Krishna
বাংলা: কৃষ্ণ
Bahasa Banjar: Kresna
Basa Banyumasan: Kresna
беларуская: Крышна
भोजपुरी: कृष्ण
български: Кришна
brezhoneg: Krishna
català: Krixna
čeština: Kršna
Cymraeg: Krishna
dansk: Krishna
Deutsch: Krishna
eesti: Krišna
Ελληνικά: Κρίσνα
español: Krishna
Esperanto: Kriŝno
euskara: Krishna
فارسی: کریشنا
français: Krishna
Frysk: Krisjna
ગુજરાતી: કૃષ્ણ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कृष्ण
한국어: 크리슈나
Հայերեն: Կրիշնա
हिन्दी: कृष्ण
Bahasa Indonesia: Kresna
íslenska: Krishna
italiano: Kṛṣṇa
עברית: קרישנה
Basa Jawa: Kresna
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೃಷ್ಣ
ქართული: კრიშნა
қазақша: Кришна
Kiswahili: Krishna
Latina: Krishna
latviešu: Krišna
lietuvių: Krišna
magyar: Krisna
मैथिली: श्री कृष्ण
മലയാളം: കൃഷ്ണൻ
मराठी: कृष्ण
მარგალური: კრიშნა
Bahasa Melayu: Sri Krishna
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကရစ်ရှနား
Nederlands: Krishna (god)
नेपाली: कृष्ण
日本語: クリシュナ
norsk: Krishna
norsk nynorsk: Krisjna
occitan: Krichna
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କୃଷ୍ଣ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Krishna
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ
پنجابی: کرشن
پښتو: کرېشنا
Patois: Krishna
ភាសាខ្មែរ: Krishna
polski: Kryszna
português: Krishna
română: Krishna
русский: Кришна
संस्कृतम्: कृष्णः
Scots: Krishna
සිංහල: ක්‍රිෂ්ණ
Simple English: Krishna
سنڌي: ڪرشن
slovenčina: Kršna
slovenščina: Krišna
српски / srpski: Кришна
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Krišna
Basa Sunda: Kresna
suomi: Krishna
svenska: Krishna
Tagalog: Krishna
Türkçe: Krişna
українська: Крішна
اردو: کرشن
Tiếng Việt: Krishna
Võro: Krišna
粵語: 黑天
中文: 黑天
Kabɩyɛ: Krishna