Krishna

Krishna
God of Compassion, Tenderness and Love[1][2]
Krishna
Krishna statue at the Sri Mariamman temple, Singapore
AffiliationSvayam Bhagavan, Paramatman, Brahman, Vishnu, Radha Krishna[3][4]
AbodeGoloka Vrindavana, Gokula, Dwarka
WeaponSudarshana Chakra
Kaumodaki
BattlesKurukshetra War
TextsBhagavata Purana, Harivamsa, Vishnu Purana, Mahabharata (Bhagavad Gita), Gita Govinda
FestivalsKrishna Janmashtami, Holi
Personal information
BornMathura, Kingdom of Surasena (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)[5]
ConsortsRadha, the Ashtabharyas, and 16,000–16,100 other junior queens[6][note 1]
ParentsDevaki (mother) and Vasudeva (father), Yashoda (foster mother) and Nanda Baba (foster father)
SiblingsBalarama, Subhadra
DynastySomavansha (Yaduvanshi)

Krishna (ə/,[8] [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] (About this sound listen); Sanskrit: कृष्ण, translit. Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshiped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and also as the supreme God in his own right.[9] He is the god of compassion, tenderness, and love in Hinduism,[1][2] and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities.[10] Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar.[11]

Krishna is also known by numerous names, such as Govinda, Mukunda, Madhusudhana, Vasudeva, and Makhan chor. The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are generally titled as Krishna Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical, theological, and mythological texts.[12] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and as the universal supreme being.[13] His iconography reflects these legends, and shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.[14]

The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature.[15] In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, and this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism. These sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement.[16] Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri dance.[17][18] He is a pan-Hindu god, but is particularly revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, Jagannatha in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal,[19] Dwarka and Junagadh in Gujarat, Pandharpur in Maharashtra, Udupi in Karnataka, Nathdwara in Rajasthan[20] and Guruvayur in Kerala.[21] Since the 1960s the worship of Krishna has also spread to the Western world and to Africa, largely due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON).[22]

Names and epithets

The name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, which is primarily an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue".[23] The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening".[23] The name is also interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive".[24]

As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets, and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; Govinda "chief herdsman",[25] and Gopala "Protector of the 'Go', which means "Soul" or the cows".[26][27] Some names for Krishna hold regional importance; Jagannatha, found in Puri Hindu temple, is a popular incarnation in Odisha state and nearby regions of eastern India.[28][29][30]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Krisjna
Alemannisch: Krishna
العربية: كريشنا
অসমীয়া: কৃষ্ণ
asturianu: Krishna
বাংলা: কৃষ্ণ
Bahasa Banjar: Kresna
Basa Banyumasan: Kresna
беларуская: Крышна
भोजपुरी: कृष्ण
български: Кришна
brezhoneg: Krishna
català: Krixna
čeština: Kršna
Cymraeg: Krishna
dansk: Krishna
Deutsch: Krishna
eesti: Krišna
Ελληνικά: Κρίσνα
español: Krishna
Esperanto: Kriŝno
euskara: Krishna
فارسی: کریشنا
français: Krishna
Frysk: Krisjna
ગુજરાતી: કૃષ્ણ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कृष्ण
한국어: 크리슈나
Հայերեն: Կրիշնա
हिन्दी: कृष्ण
Bahasa Indonesia: Kresna
íslenska: Krishna
italiano: Kṛṣṇa
עברית: קרישנה
Basa Jawa: Kresna
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೃಷ್ಣ
ქართული: კრიშნა
қазақша: Кришна
Latina: Krishna
latviešu: Krišna
lietuvių: Krišna
magyar: Krisna
मैथिली: श्री कृष्ण
മലയാളം: കൃഷ്ണൻ
मराठी: कृष्ण
მარგალური: კრიშნა
Bahasa Melayu: Sri Krishna
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကရစ်ရှနား
Nederlands: Krishna (god)
नेपाली: कृष्ण
日本語: クリシュナ
norsk: Krishna
norsk nynorsk: Krisjna
occitan: Krichna
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କୃଷ୍ଣ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Krishna
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ
پنجابی: کرشن
پښتو: کرېشنا
Patois: Krishna
ភាសាខ្មែរ: Krishna
polski: Kryszna
português: Krishna
română: Krishna
русский: Кришна
संस्कृतम्: कृष्णः
Scots: Krishna
සිංහල: ක්‍රිෂ්ණ
Simple English: Krishna
سنڌي: ڪرشن
slovenčina: Kršna
slovenščina: Krišna
српски / srpski: Кришна
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Krišna
Basa Sunda: Kresna
suomi: Krishna
svenska: Krishna
Tagalog: Krishna
Türkçe: Krişna
українська: Крішна
اردو: کرشن
Tiếng Việt: Krishna
Võro: Krišna
粵語: 黑天
中文: 黑天
Kabɩyɛ: Krishna