Kingdom of Tondo
||It has been
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Travelers from monarchical cultures
 who had contacts with Tondo (including the Chinese, Portuguese, and the Spanish)
 often initially mislabeled
 it as the "Kingdom of Tondo". Early Augustinian chronicler Pedro de San Buenaventura explained this error as early as 1613 in his
Tondo is of particular interest to Filipino historians and
Geographically, it was completely surrounded by bodies of water: mainly the
Politically, Tondo was made up of several social groupings called
Culturally, the Tagalog people of Tondo had a rich
Following contact with the
Only a few comprehensive reviews of source materials for the study of Philippine prehistory and early history have been done, with William Henry Scott's 1968 review being one of the earliest systematic critiques.
 Scott's review has become a seminal academic work on the study of early Philippine history, having been reviewed early on by a panel of that era's most eminent historians and folklorists including
Scott lists the sources for the study of Philippine prehistory as: archaeology, linguistics and paleogeography, foreign written documents, and quasi-historical genealogical documents. In a later work,  he conducts a detailed critique of early written documents and surviving oral or folk traditions connected with the Philippines early historic or protohistoric era. 
Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's
A more detailed discussion of notable archaeological, documentary, and genealogical sources can be found towards the end of this article.
Junker notes that most of the primary written sources for early Philippine history have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archaeological evidence.
 She cites the works of
F. Landa Jocano warns that in the case of early Philippine history, it's essential that "even archaeological findings" be carefully interpreted by experts, because these can be misinterpreted if not analyzed in proper context.