Kingdom of Tondo

Kingdom of Tondo
ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Kaharian ng Tondo
Barangay state (15th century) [1]
Personal union with Namayan through its leaders (1175–1571) [2]
before 900 CE [4] (earliest historical reference)–1589 [3]
The district of Tondo, highlighted in sepia on a Detail of the 1819 Map "Plano de la ciudad de Manila, capital de las Yslas Filipinas", prepared by Francisco Xavier de Herrera lo Grabó for the Manila Land Survey Year of 1819. The consensus among contemporary historiographers is that the location of the district during the Spanish colonial period approximates the location of the archaic polity of Tondo. [1] [5]
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila) [6]
Languages Old Tagalog, [7] Kapampangan, [2] Bikol
(local languages)

Old Malay, [4] Middle Chinese
(trade languages)
Religion Hinduism, [8] Buddhism, [8] [9] Folk religion and Islam
Government Monarchy [10] ( Barangay state) [5]
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  c. 1500s Rajah Salalila
 •  1558–1571 Lakandula
 •  1575–1589 Magat Salamat
Historical era Iron Age
Classical antiquity
High Middle Ages
 •  Diplomacy with the Medang Kingdom [6] before 900 CE [4] (earliest historical reference)
 •  Majapahit–Luzon war 1365
 •  Diplomacy with Ming dynasty [11] 1373
 •  Annexed by Bruneian Empire 1500
 •  Last resistance against the Spanish [12] 1571
 •  Dissolution of the kingdom 1589 [3]
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter [13]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Barangay state
Prehistory of the Philippines
Kingdom of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of   Philippines
Warning: Value specified for " continent" does not comply
Part of a series on the
Emblem of Brunei.svg
Bruneian Empire
to 1888
House of Bolkiah
(15th century – present)
Sultanate of Sulu
to 1578
Kingdom of Maynila
to 1571
Kingdom of Tondo
to 1571
Castille War 1578
Civil War 1660–1673
15th century
to 1841
15th century
to 1846
Sabah (North Borneo)
15th century
to 1865
British protectorate 1888–1984
Japanese occupation 1942–1945
Borneo campaign 1945
Revolt 1962

The Kingdom of Tondo ( Filipino: Kaharian ng Tondo [kɐhɐrɪˈən nɐŋ tonˈdo]; Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit:ᜎᜓᜐᜓ(Lusu), Post-Kudlit: ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Kapampangan: Kayarian ning Tondo; Bikol: Kahadean ini Tundo; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū; Sanskrit: तोन्दुन् (Tondu); Malay: Kerajaan Tundun), also called Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, Tung-lio, Tundaan, Tunduh, Tunda, Tong-Lao, [14] or Lusung, [15] [16] was one of the major pre-Hispanic Philippine Indic polities [1] [17] [18] ( protohistoric barangays) [19] [20] [1] on the Pasig River delta, where the river meets Manila Bay, on Luzon island. [21](p71) [22] Aside from the Pasig River to the South and the shore of Manila Bay to the West, it was completely surrounded by several of the delta's rivulets: the Canal de la Reina to the Southeast, the Estero de Sunog Apog to the Northeast, and the Estero de Vitas on its Eastern and Northernmost boundaries. [23]

Referred to in academic circles as the "Tondo polity" [24] [1] [5] or "Tondo settlement", [19] [1] [5] Tondo was made up of several social groupings [5] [24] called Barangay, [5] [19] which were led by Datus, [1] [5] [24] who in turn recognized the leadership of the most senior among them as a sort of " Paramount datu" called a Lakan. [1] [5] [19] According to the earliest Tagalog dictionaries, large coastal polities with this kind of leadership structure were called "Bayan". [25] [1] [5] In the middle to late 16th century, its Lakan was held in high regard within the alliance group which was formed by the various Manila Bay area polities, which included Tondo, Maynila, and various polities in Bulacan and Pampanga. [5] [24]

An independent kingdom whose culture and language were influenced by trade with India, [26] China, [27] and various Southeast Asian powers, Tondo built upon its central position along ancient regional trading routes throughout the archipelago to include, among others, initiating diplomatic and commercial ties with China during the Ming dynasty. Thus, it became an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia (see Luções). Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah. And by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago.

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of the Kingdom of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent political entity; it now exists as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Tondo is of particular interest to Filipino historians and historiographers because it is one of the oldest historically documented settlements in the Philippines. [24] [28] Scholars generally agree that it was mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Philippines oldest extant locally produced written document, dating back to 900 CE. [4] [1] [24] [28]

Sources and Historiography

A recreated image of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900), one of the most important primary documentary sources in Philippine history. It is the Philippines' oldest extant locally-created written document.

Only a few comprehensive reviews of source materials for the study of Philippine prehistory and early history have been done, with William Henry Scott's 1968 review being one of the earliest systematic critiques. [17] Scott's review has become a seminal academic work on the study of early Philippine history, having been reviewed early on by a panel of that era's most eminent historians and folklorists incuding Teodoro Agoncillo, Horacio de la Costa, Marcelino Foronda, Mercedes Grau Santamaria, Nicholas Zafra and Gregorio Zaide. [29] Scott's 1968 review was acknowledged by Laura Lee Junker when she conducted her own comprehensive 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities, [17] and by F. Landa Jocano in his Anthropological analysis of Philippine Prehistory. [19]

Scott lists the sources for the study of Philippine prehistory as: archeology, linguistics and paleogeography, foreign written documents, and quasi-historical genealogical documents. In a later work, [5] he conducts a detailed critique of early written documents and surviving oral or folk traditions connected with the Philippines early historic or protohistoric era. [19]

Sources Scott, [28] [5] Jocano, [19] and Junker [17] consider particularly relevant to the study of the Tondo and Maynila settlements include:

  • Malay texts, [17] [28] [5]
  • Philippine oral traditions, [17] [19]
  • Chinese tributary records and geographies, [17] [28] [5]
  • early Spanish writings, [17] [5] and
  • archeological evidence from the region around Manila Bay, the Pasig River, and Laguna Lake. [17] [28] [5] [19]

Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox's [30] work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta). [31]

A more detailed discussion of notable archeological, documentary, and genealogical sources can be found towards the end of this article.

Critical historiography

Junker notes that most of the primary written sources for early Philippine history have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archeological evidence. [17] She cites the works of F. Landa Jocano, Felix M. Keesing, and William Henry Scott as notable exceptions. [17]

F. Landa Jocano warns that in the case of early Philippine history, it's essential that "even archeological findings" be carefully interpreted by experts, because these can be misinterpreted if not analyzed in proper context. [17]

Other Languages
Deutsch: Luzon-Reich
español: Reino de Tondó
한국어: 톤도 왕국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Tondo
italiano: Regno di Tondo
српски / srpski: Краљевство Тондо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevina Tondo