Kingdom of Montenegro

Kingdom of Montenegro
Краљевина Црнa Горa
Kraljevina Crna Gora
1916-1922: Government-in-exile
Royal Coat of arms
Royal Coat of arms
Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori
Убавој нам Црној Гори
"To Our Beautiful Montenegro"
The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1914.
Capital Cetinje (1910–1916)
Capital-in-exile Lyon
Languages Serbian
Religion Eastern-Orthodox (official) [1]

Sunni Islam, Roman Catholicism

Government Constitutional monarchy
 •  1910–1918 Nicholas I
Prime Minister
 •  1910–1912 Lazar Tomanović (first)
 •  1917–1918 Evgenije Popović (last)
Legislature Parliament
Historical era World War I
 •  Proclamation 28 August 1910
 •  Balkan Wars 1912–1913
 •  Treaty of London 30 May 1913
 •  Balkans Campaign 1914–1918
 •  Corfu Declaration 20 July 1917
 •  Austrian occupation 17 January 1916
1916-1922: Government-in-exile
 •  Unification with Serbia 28 November 1918
 •  1910 9,475 km2 (3,658 sq mi)
 •  1912 14,442 km2 (5,576 sq mi)
 •  1911 est. 220,000 
 •  1914 est. 423,000 
Currency Montenegrin Perper
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Montenegro
Today part of   Montenegro
  Kosovo [a]
a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states.
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The Kingdom of Montenegro ( Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918, following the end of World War I, with Montenegrin government still in exile, the Podgorica Assembly proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia which itself was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes three days later, on 1 December 1918.


Prince Nicholas of Montenegro proclaimed the Kingdom of Montenegro in Cetinje on 28 August 1910. King Nicholas I (as he became) had ruled the country as Prince since 1860, and had initiated several modernizing reforms at the beginning of the 20th century, such as introducing a constitution and a new currency, the Montenegrin perper.

Montenegro joined the First Balkan War in 1912, hoping to win a share in the last Ottoman-controlled areas of Rumelia. Montenegro did make further territorial gains by splitting Sandžak with Serbia on 30 May 1913. But the Montenegrins had to abandon the newly captured city of İşkodra (Skadar in Serbian, modern-day Shkodër) to the new state of Albania in May 1913, at the insistence of the Great Powers, despite the Montenegrins having invested 10,000 lives into the capture of the town (April 1913) from the Ottoman-Albanian forces of Esad Pasha. Essad Pasha made a deal to surrender the town to the Montenegrins in exchange for Montenegro supporting his claims in Central Albania. However, as Shkodër and the surroundings had a large ethnic Albanian majority, the area went to the state of Albania instead.

When the Second Balkan War broke out in June 1913, Serbia fought against Bulgaria, and King Nicholas sided with Serbia.

During World War I (1914-1918) Montenegro allied itself with the Triple Entente, in line with King Nicholas' pro-Serbian policy. Accordingly, Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro from 15 January 1916 to October 1918.

On 20 July 1917, the signing of the Corfu Declaration foreshadowed the unification of Montenegro with Serbia. On 26 November 1918, Podgorica Assembly, an elected body claiming to represent Montenegrin people, unanimously adopted a resolution deposing king Nicholas I (who was still in exile) and unifying Montenegro with Serbia. Upon this event Nicholas I, who had previously supported unification with Serbia into a greater state with his dynasty playing the pivotal role, switched to promoting Montenegrin nationalism and opposing the union with Serbia, a position he maintained until his death in France in 1921.

During World War II, the occupying forces in Yugoslavia considered turning the Italian governorate of Montenegro into a puppet kingdom, but nothing came of these plans.

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Montenegro
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevina Crna Gora
中文: 黑山王国