Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

Kingdom of Israel

מַמְלֶכֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל
930 BCE–720 BCE
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
StatusKingdom
CapitalShechem (930 BCE)
Penuel (930–909)
Tirzah (909–880)
Samaria (880–720)
Common languagesHebrew
Religion
Monolatristic or monotheistic Yahwism
Canaanite polytheism
Mesopotamian polytheism
Folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraIron Age
930 BCE
720 BCE
ISO 3166 codeIL
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part ofIsrael
Palestine
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַמְלֶכֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern: Mamlekhet Yisra'el, Tiberian: Mamléḵeṯ Yiśrāʼēl) was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Some researchers in modern scholarship, incorporating textual criticism and archaeology, has challenged the biblical account that the northern kingdom of Israel broke off from a united monarchy with the southern kingdom of Judah, suggesting instead that the northern Kingdom of Israel developed independently of Judah (a comparatively small and rural area), and that it first reached the political, economic, military and architectural sophistication of a kingdom under the Omride dynasty around 884 BCE.[1]:169–195[2][3]

The Kingdom of Israel existed roughly from 930 BCE until 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The major cities of the kingdom were Shechem, Tirzah and Samaria (Shomron).

Biblical narrative

In the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel has been referred to as the "House of Joseph".[4][5] It is also frequently referenced (particularly in poetry) as Ephraim, the tribe whose territory housed the capital cities and the royal families. It has also been referred to as "Israel in Samaria".[6]

According to the Hebrew Bible, the territory of the Kingdom of Israel comprised the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben and Gad. Its capital was Samaria according to the Book of Isaiah.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Í-sek-lia̍t Ông-kok
español: Reino de Israel
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yî-set-lie̍t Vòng-koet
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Israel (Samaria)
Nederlands: Koninkrijk Israël
português: Reino de Israel
Gagana Samoa: Le Malo o Isaraelu
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevstvo Izrael
ייִדיש: מלכות ישראל