Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the forces that cause them to move.[1][2][3] Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics.[4][5][6] A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on bodies falls within kinetics, not kinematics. For further details, see analytical dynamics.

Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies. In mechanical engineering, robotics, and biomechanics[7] kinematics is used to describe the motion of systems composed of joined parts (multi-link systems) such as an engine, a robotic arm or the human skeleton.

Geometric transformations, also called rigid transformations, are used to describe the movement of components in a mechanical system, simplifying the derivation of the equations of motion. They are also central to dynamic analysis.

Kinematic analysis is the process of measuring the kinematic quantities used to describe motion. In engineering, for instance, kinematic analysis may be used to find the range of movement for a given mechanism and working in reverse, using kinematic synthesis to design a mechanism for a desired range of motion.[8] In addition, kinematics applies algebraic geometry to the study of the mechanical advantage of a mechanical system or mechanism.

Etymology of the term

The term kinematic is the English version of A.M. Ampère's cinématique,[9] which he constructed from the Greek κίνημα kinema ("movement, motion"), itself derived from κινεῖν kinein ("to move").[10][11]

Kinematic and cinématique are related to the French word cinéma, but neither are directly derived from it. However, they do share a root word in common, as cinéma came from the shortened form of cinématographe, "motion picture projector and camera," once again from the Greek word for movement and from the Greek γρᾰ́φω grapho ("to write").[12]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Kinematik
asturianu: Cinemática
azərbaycanca: Kinematika
беларуская: Кінематыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кінэматыка
български: Кинематика
bosanski: Kinematika
català: Cinemàtica
čeština: Kinematika
dansk: Kinematik
Deutsch: Kinematik
Ελληνικά: Κινητική
español: Cinemática
euskara: Zinematika
فارسی: سینماتیک
français: Cinématique
galego: Cinemática
한국어: 운동학
հայերեն: Կինեմատիկա
hrvatski: Kinematika
Bahasa Indonesia: Kinematika
italiano: Cinematica
עברית: קינמטיקה
ქართული: კინემატიკა
қазақша: Кинематика
Кыргызча: Кинематика
latviešu: Kinemātika
lietuvių: Kinematika
magyar: Kinematika
македонски: Кинематика
Bahasa Melayu: Kinematik
монгол: Кинематик
Nederlands: Kinematica

norsk: Kinematikk
norsk nynorsk: Kinematikk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kinematika
Patois: Kinimatix
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ស៊ីនេម៉ាទិច
Piemontèis: Cinemàtica
polski: Kinematyka
português: Cinemática
română: Cinematică
русский: Кинематика
Scots: Kinematics
shqip: Kinematika
sicilianu: Cinemàtica
Simple English: Kinematics
slovenčina: Kinematika
slovenščina: Kinematika
српски / srpski: Кинематика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kinematika
Tagalog: Kinematika
Türkçe: Kinematik
українська: Кінематика
اردو: جنبشیات
Tiếng Việt: Chuyển động học
ייִדיש: קינעמאטיק