Kiev

Kiev

Київ
Kyiv
Counterclockwise (from upper right): Verkhovna Rada, Kiev Pechersk Lavra, Red University Building, House with Chimaeras, Independence Square, statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Flag of Kiev
Flag
Coat of arms of Kiev
Coat of arms
Kiev in Ukraine
Kiev is located in Ukraine
Kiev
Kiev
Kiev in Ukraine
Kiev is located in Europe
Kiev
Kiev
Kiev (Europe)
Coordinates: 50°27′00″N 30°31′24″E / 50°27′00″N 30°31′24″E / 50.45000; 30.52333
CountryUkraine
MunicipalityKiev City Municipality
Founded482 A.D. (officially)[2]
City councilKiev City Council
Raions
Government
 • Mayor and Head of City State AdministrationVitali Klitschko[3][4]
 • MPs:Boryslav Bereza
Viktor Chumak (BPP)
Andriy Illyenko (SV)
Oleksandr Suprunenko
Andriy Biletsky
Volodymyr Ariev (BPP)
Oleksandr Tretiakov (BPP)
Vyacheslav Konstantinovskiy (PF)
Leonid Yemets (PF)
Dmytro Andrievsky (BPP)
Yuri Levchenko (SV)
Area
 • City with special status839 km2 (324 sq mi)
Elevation
179 m (587 ft)
Population
(1 November 2015)
 • City with special status2,900,920[1]
 • Density3,299/km2 (8,540/sq mi)
 • Metro
3,375,000[5]of the Kiev metropolitan area
Demonym(s)Kievan,[6] Kyivan[7]
GDP (2012)
 • TotalUS$34.5 billion
 • Per capitaUS$12,200
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
01xxx–04xxx
Area code(s)+380 44
FIPS codeUP12
Kiev City Council

Kiev (v/ KEE-ef, -ev)[9] or Kyiv (Ukrainian: Київ, translit. Kyiv [ˈkɪjiu̯] (About this soundlisten); Russian: Киев, translit. Kiyev [ˈkʲi(j)ɪf]; Old East Slavic: Кыѥвъ, translit. Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974[1] (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press),[10] making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.[11]

Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro.

The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders (see Name, below). During its history, Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars,[12] until seized by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus', the first East Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasion in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; first the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, followed by Poland and Russia.[13]

The city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which was proclaimed by the Red Army, and, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country.[14] During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city. Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections.[15][16][17][18]

Name

A fragment of Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae map by Anthony Jenkinson (London 1562) published by Ortelius in 1570.

Currently, Kiev is the traditional and most commonly used English name for the city.[19] The Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English.[20]

As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution. The early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjev (Cyrillic: Къıєвъ[21]). The name is associated with that of Kyi (Кий), the legendary eponymous founder of the city.

Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiow, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius (London, 1570) the name of the city is spelled Kiou. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, and the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall (London, 1772), the city is referred to as Kiovia.[22] The form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation [ˈkʲijɪf], during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire (from 1708, a seat of a governorate).[citation needed]

A fragment from an 1804 John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" published in "Cary's new universal atlas", London, 1808

In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London. The English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823.[23] By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation.

Kiev City State Administration official request for Wikimedia Foundation to switch "Kiev" to "Kyiv".

Kyiv ([ˈkɪjiw]) is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv. This has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995. The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union,[24] all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions,[25] several international organizations,[26] Encarta encyclopedia, and by some media in Ukraine.[27] In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U.S. government, although 'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city.[28][29][30] The alternate romanizations Kyyiv (BGN/PCGN transliteration) and Kyjiv (scholarly) are also in use in English-language atlases. Most major English-language news sources like the BBC,[31] and The New York Times[32] continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist.[33]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Киев
Afrikaans: Kiëf
Alemannisch: Kiew
አማርኛ: ኪየቭ
Ænglisc: Cænugeard
Аҧсшәа: Кыив
العربية: كييف
aragonés: Kiev
asturianu: Kiev
авар: Киев
azərbaycanca: Kiyev
تۆرکجه: کیئف
বাংলা: কিয়েভ
Bân-lâm-gú: Kiev
башҡортса: Киев
беларуская: Кіеў
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кіеў
български: Киев
Boarisch: Kiew
བོད་ཡིག: ཀིབ།
bosanski: Kijev
brezhoneg: Kyiv
буряад: Киев
català: Kíev
Чӑвашла: Киев
Cebuano: Kiev
čeština: Kyjev
chiShona: Kyiv
Cymraeg: Kiev
dansk: Kijev
davvisámegiella: Kiova
Deutsch: Kiew
dolnoserbski: Kijew
eesti: Kiiev
Ελληνικά: Κίεβο
эрзянь: Киев ош
español: Kiev
Esperanto: Kievo
estremeñu: Kiev
euskara: Kiev
فارسی: کی‌یف
Fiji Hindi: Kiev
føroyskt: Kyiv
français: Kiev
Frysk: Kiëv
Gaeilge: Cív
Gaelg: Kyiv
Gagauz: Kıyiv
Gàidhlig: Kiev
galego: Kiev
ГӀалгӀай: Киев
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kiev
한국어: 키예프
Hawaiʻi: Kiev
հայերեն: Կիև
हिन्दी: कीव
hornjoserbsce: Kijew
hrvatski: Kijev
Ido: Kyiv
Ilokano: Kiev
Bahasa Indonesia: Kiev
interlingua: Kiev
Interlingue: Kiev
Ирон: Киев
isiZulu: IKiyevi
íslenska: Kíev
italiano: Kiev
עברית: קייב
Basa Jawa: Kyiv
Kabɩyɛ: Kiivi
kalaallisut: Kyiv
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೀವ್
ქართული: კიევი
kaszëbsczi: Czijew
қазақша: Киев
Kiswahili: Kiev
коми: Киев
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kyèv
kurdî: Kîev
Кыргызча: Киев
кырык мары: Киев
Ladino: Kyiv
لۊری شومالی: کی یئف
Latina: Kiovia
latviešu: Kijeva
Lëtzebuergesch: Kiew
lietuvių: Kijevas
Ligure: Kiev
lingála: Kyjiw
Livvinkarjala: Kijev
lumbaart: Kiev
magyar: Kijev
македонски: Киев
Malagasy: Kiev
മലയാളം: കീവ്
Malti: Kiev
Māori: Kieu
मराठी: क्यीव
მარგალური: კიევი
مصرى: كييف
مازِرونی: کییف
Bahasa Melayu: Kyiv
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Kiev
мокшень: Киев
монгол: Киев
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကီးယက်မြို့
Nāhuatl: Kiev
Dorerin Naoero: Kiev
Nederlands: Kiev
日本語: キエフ
нохчийн: Киев
Nordfriisk: Kiew
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kiev
norsk: Kiev
norsk nynorsk: Kiev
Novial: Kiyev
occitan: Kyiv
олык марий: Киев
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kiyev
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੀਵ
پنجابی: کیف
Papiamentu: Kiev
پښتو: کيېف
Patois: Kiev
Перем Коми: Киев
Piemontèis: Kijv
Plattdüütsch: Kiew
polski: Kijów
Ποντιακά: Κίεβο
português: Kiev
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kyiv
qırımtatarca: Kiyev
română: Kiev
Romani: Kiev
rumantsch: Kiev
Runa Simi: Kiyiw
русиньскый: Київ
русский: Киев
саха тыла: Киев
sardu: Kiev
Scots: Kiev
Sesotho: Kyїv
shqip: Kievi
sicilianu: Kiev
Simple English: Kiev
slovenčina: Kyjev
slovenščina: Kijev
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Кꙑѥвъ
ślůnski: Kijůw
کوردی: کیێڤ
српски / srpski: Кијев
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kijev
suomi: Kiova
svenska: Kiev
Tagalog: Kiev
தமிழ்: கீவ்
tarandíne: Kiev
татарча/tatarça: Киев
తెలుగు: క్యివ్
ไทย: เคียฟ
тоҷикӣ: Киев
Türkçe: Kiev
Türkmençe: Kyýiw
Twi: Kiev
тыва дыл: Киев
удмурт: Киев
українська: Київ
اردو: کیف
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كىيېۋ
vèneto: Kyiv
vepsän kel’: Kijev
Tiếng Việt: Kiev
Volapük: Küyiv
Võro: Kiiova
文言: 基輔
Winaray: Kiev
Wolof: Kiyew
吴语: 基辅
ייִדיש: קיעוו
Yorùbá: Kiev
粵語: 基輔
žemaitėška: Kijevs
中文: 基輔