Khufu (/, full name Khnum Khufu (/), known to the Greeks as Cheops, was an ancient Egyptian monarch who was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC). Khufu succeeded his father Sneferu as king. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are poorly documented.[5][10]

The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of a later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments, and many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main character noted in the Westcar Papyrus from the 13th dynasty.[5][10]

Most documents that mention king Khufu were written by ancient Egyptian and Greek historians around 300 BC. Khufu's obituary is presented there in a conflicting way: while the king enjoyed a long-lasting cultural heritage preservation during the period of the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom, the ancient historians Manetho, Diodorus and Herodotus hand down a very negative depiction of Khufu's character. Thanks to these documents, an obscure and critical picture of Khufu's personality persists.[5][10]

Khufu's name

Khufu's name was dedicated to the earth deity Khnum, which might point to an increase of Khnum's popularity and religious importance. In fact, several royal and religious titles introduced at his time may point out that Egyptian pharaohs sought to accentuate their divine origin and status by dedicating their official cartouche names to certain deities. Khufu may have viewed himself as a divine creator, a role that was already given to Khnum, the god of earth, creation, and growth. As a consequence, the king connected Khnum's name with his own. Khufu's full name (Khnum-khufu) means "Khnum protect me".[11][12]

The pharaoh officially used two versions of his birth name: Khnum-khuf and Khufu. The first (complete) version clearly exhibits Khufu's religious loyalty to Khnum, the second (shorter) version does not. It is unknown as to why the king would use a shortened name version since it hides the name of Khnum and the king's name connection to this god. It might be possible though, that the short name wasn't meant to be connected to any god at all.[5][10]

Khufu is well known under his Hellenized name Khêops or Cheops (s/, KEE-ops; Greek: Χέοψ, by Diodorus and Herodotus) and less well known under another Hellenized name, Súphis (s/ SOO-fis; Greek: Σοῦφις, by Manetho).[5][10] A rare version of the name of Khufu, used by Josephus, is Sofe (i/ SOF-ee; Greek: Σόφε).[2] Arab historians, who wrote mystic stories about Khufu and the Giza pyramids, called him Saurid (Arabic: سوريد‎) or Salhuk (سلهوق).[13]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Choefoe
العربية: خوفو
বাংলা: খুফু
беларуская: Хеопс
български: Хеопс
brezhoneg: C'houfou
català: Kheops
čeština: Chufu
Cymraeg: Khufu
dansk: Keops
Deutsch: Cheops
eesti: Hufu
Ελληνικά: Χέωψ
español: Keops
Esperanto: Ĥufu
euskara: Keops
فارسی: خوفو
français: Khéops
Gaeilge: Cúfú
galego: Queops
한국어: 쿠푸
հայերեն: Քեոփս
hrvatski: Kufu
Bahasa Indonesia: Khufu (firaun)
italiano: Cheope
עברית: ח'ופו
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕುಫು
ქართული: ხეოფსი
Кыргызча: Хеопс
Latina: Cheops
latviešu: Heopss
lietuvių: Cheopsas
magyar: Hufu
مصرى: خوفو
Bahasa Melayu: Khufu
монгол: Хуфу
Nederlands: Cheops (farao)
日本語: クフ
norsk: Keops
occitan: Khofo
polski: Cheops
português: Quéops
română: Khufu
русский: Хеопс
Scots: Khufu
Simple English: Khufu
slovenčina: Chufu
slovenščina: Keops
српски / srpski: Кеопс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Keops
suomi: Khufu
svenska: Cheops
Tagalog: Khufu
தமிழ்: கூபு
тоҷикӣ: Хеопс
Türkçe: Keops (firavun)
українська: Хеопс
اردو: خوفو
Tiếng Việt: Khufu
Winaray: Khufu
Yorùbá: Khufu
中文: 胡夫