Kerala

Kerala
Niyamasabha.jpg
Boathouse (7063399547).jpg
Rice fields of Kuttanad.jpg
Athirappilly Waterfalls 1.jpg
01KovalamBeach&Kerala.jpg
Kathakali performer.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Niyamasabha Mandiram, Rice fields of Kuttanad,
Kovalam Beach, Kathakali performer, Athirappilly Falls,
Boathouse
Nickname(s): 
God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts, Land of Trees
Location of Kerala
Location of Kerala
Coordinates (Thiruvananthapuram): 8°30′N 77°00′E / 8°30′N 77°00′E / 8.5; 77
Symbols
EmblemEmblem of Kerala state Vector.svg Seal of Kerala
Animal
Elephas maximus (Bandipur).jpg
Indian Elephant
Bird
Great Hornbill Goa.jpg
Great hornbill
Fish
Etroplus suratensis.jpg
Green chromide
Insect
Papilio buddha Westwood, 1872 – Malabar Banded Peacock at Peravoor (1).jpg
Papilio buddha[9]
Flower
Konnamaram.JPG
Kanikonna
Fruit
Jackfruit hanging.JPG
Jackfruit [10]
Tree
Coconut green.JPG
Coconut tree[11]

Kerala (ə/) is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-third largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea[12] to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.[13]

The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE or AD). The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala, had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State.

The economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with 6.86 trillion (US$99 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 179,000 (US$2,600).[3][4] Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.712 in 2015 (0.784 in 2018); the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, and European cultures,[14] developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.

The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.

Etymology

The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from Malayali kera 'coconut tree' and alam 'land'; thus, 'land of coconuts',[15] which is a nickname for the state used by locals due to the abundance of coconut trees.[16] The word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.[17] The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra (Sanskrit for 'son of Kerala' or 'son of Chera[s]'). This contradicts the theory that kera is from 'coconut tree'.[18] At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word.[19] The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for 'lake'.[20]

The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics.[21] The Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple.[22][23] Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam 'declivity of a hill or a mountain slope'[24] or chera alam 'land of the Cheras'. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra.[25]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kerala
Afrikaans: Kerala
Alemannisch: Kerala
አማርኛ: ኬረለ
العربية: كيرلا
অসমীয়া: কেৰেলা
asturianu: Kerala
تۆرکجه: کرالا
বাংলা: কেরল
Bân-lâm-gú: Kerala
беларуская: Керала
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Керала
भोजपुरी: केरल
български: Керала
བོད་ཡིག: ཀེ་ར་ལཱ།
bosanski: Kerala
brezhoneg: Kerala
català: Kerala
Чӑвашла: Керала
čeština: Kérala
Cymraeg: Kerala
dansk: Kerala
Deutsch: Kerala
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކެރެލާ
डोटेली: केरल
eesti: Kerala
Ελληνικά: Κεράλα
español: Kerala
Esperanto: Keralo
euskara: Kerala
فارسی: کرالا
Fiji Hindi: Kerala
français: Kerala
Gaeilge: Kerala
Gàidhlig: Kerala
ગુજરાતી: કેરળ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: केरळ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kerala
한국어: 케랄라주
հայերեն: Կերալա
हिन्दी: केरल
hornjoserbsce: Kerala
hrvatski: Kerala
Ido: Kerala
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কেরালা
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerala
íslenska: Kerala
italiano: Kerala
עברית: קרלה
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೇರಳ
Kapampangan: Kerala
ქართული: კერალა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: کیرل
Kiswahili: Kerala
لۊری شومالی: کرالا
Latina: Malabaria
latviešu: Kerala
lietuvių: Kerala
magyar: Kerala
मैथिली: केरल
македонски: Керала
Malagasy: Kerala
മലയാളം: കേരളം
मराठी: केरळ
მარგალური: კერალა
مصرى: كيرالا
Bahasa Melayu: Kerala
монгол: Керала
Nederlands: Kerala
नेपाली: केरला
नेपाल भाषा: केरल
日本語: ケーララ州
нохчийн: Керала
Nordfriisk: Kerala
norsk: Kerala
norsk nynorsk: Kerala
occitan: Kerala
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କେରଳ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kerala
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੇਰਲਾ
پنجابی: کیرالہ
پښتو: کيرالا
polski: Kerala
português: Querala
română: Kerala
русский: Керала
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱮᱨᱟᱞᱟ
संस्कृतम्: केरळराज्यम्
Scots: Kerala
shqip: Kerala
සිංහල: කේරළය
Simple English: Kerala
سنڌي: ڪيرالا
slovenčina: Kérala
slovenščina: Kerala
српски / srpski: Керала
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kerala
suomi: Kerala
svenska: Kerala
Tagalog: Kerala
தமிழ்: கேரளம்
татарча/tatarça: Керала
తెలుగు: కేరళ
тоҷикӣ: Керала
ತುಳು: ಕೇರಳ
Türkçe: Kerala
українська: Керала
اردو: کیرلا
vèneto: Kerala
Tiếng Việt: Kerala
Winaray: Kerala
吴语: 喀拉拉邦
ייִדיש: קעראלא
Yorùbá: Kerala
粵語: 基拉拉邦
中文: 喀拉拉邦