Kazakhstan

Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Қазақстан Республикасы  (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy
  • Республика Казахстан  (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным
Meniń Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
CapitalAstana
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest cityAlmaty
Official languages
Ethnic groups (2016[2])
DemonymKazakhstani[a][4]
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Bakhytzhan Sagintayev
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Mazhilis
Formation
1465
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declared Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Declared Independence from the USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
Area
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
1.7
Population
• 2016 estimate
17,987,736[5] (64th)
• Density
6.49/km2 (16.8/sq mi) (227th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$497 billion[6] (42nd)
• Per capita
$26,929[6] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$170 billion[6] (50th)
• Per capita
$9,224[6] (54th)
Gini (2013)26.4[7]
low
HDI (2014)Increase 0.788[8]
high · 56th
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneWest / East (UTC+5 / +6)
Drives on theright
Calling code+7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan[b] (Kazakh: Қазақстан, translit. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] (About this sound listen); Russian: Казахстан, IPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, translit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan),[4][13] is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi).[4][14] Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.[15]

Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.[16] Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18 million people as of 2014.[17] Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq mi). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country's largest city.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition.[15] Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry.[15] Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion,"[18] and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.

Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs.[19] Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%.[20] Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed.[21] The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes.[4][22] Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, SCO, OSCE, OIC, and TURKSOY.

Etymology

The name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.[23] The name "Cossack" is of the same origin.[23] The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be literally translated as "land of the wanderers".

Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is increasingly being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs.[24]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kazakhstan
Адыгэбзэ: Къазахъстэн
адыгабзэ: Казахстан
Afrikaans: Kasakstan
Alemannisch: Kasachstan
አማርኛ: ካዛክስታን
Ænglisc: Casahstan
Аҧсшәа: Ҟазаҟсҭан
العربية: كازاخستان
aragonés: Cazaquistán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܙܩܣܛܐܢ
armãneashti: Kazahstan
arpetan: Kazacstan
অসমীয়া: কাজাখাস্তান
asturianu: Kazakstán
Avañe'ẽ: Kasahitã
azərbaycanca: Qazaxıstan
تۆرکجه: قازاخیستان
Bahasa Banjar: Kazakhstan
Bân-lâm-gú: Kazakhstan
башҡортса: Ҡаҙағстан
беларуская: Казахстан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Казахстан
भोजपुरी: कज़ाकिस्तान
Bikol Central: Kasahistan
Bislama: Kazakhstan
български: Казахстан
Boarisch: Kasachstan
bosanski: Kazahstan
brezhoneg: Kazakstan
буряад: Казахстан
català: Kazakhstan
Чӑвашла: Казахстан
Cebuano: Kasahistan
čeština: Kazachstán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Kazajistán
chiShona: Kazakhstan
chiTumbuka: Kazakhstan
Cymraeg: Casachstan
dansk: Kasakhstan
davvisámegiella: Kasakstan
Deitsch: Kazakhstan
Deutsch: Kasachstan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކަޒަކިސްތާން
dolnoserbski: Kazachstan
eesti: Kasahstan
Ελληνικά: Καζακστάν
español: Kazajistán
Esperanto: Kazaĥio
estremeñu: Cazastán
euskara: Kazakhstan
eʋegbe: Kazakhstan
فارسی: قزاقستان
Fiji Hindi: Kazakhstan
føroyskt: Kasakstan
français: Kazakhstan
Frysk: Kazachstan
Gagauz: Kazakistan
Gàidhlig: Casachstàn
galego: Casaquistán
ગુજરાતી: કઝાકિસ્તાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कझाकस्तान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kazakhstan
한국어: 카자흐스탄
Hausa: Kazakystan
Hawaiʻi: Kasakana
Հայերեն: Ղազախստան
hornjoserbsce: Kazachstan
hrvatski: Kazahstan
Ilokano: Kazakhstan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কাজাখস্তান
Bahasa Indonesia: Kazakhstan
interlingua: Kazakhstan
Interlingue: Kazakstan
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑲᓴᒃᖢᓇ ᓄᓇ
íslenska: Kasakstan
italiano: Kazakistan
עברית: קזחסטן
Basa Jawa: Kazakhstan
kalaallisut: Kasakhstani
Kapampangan: Kazastan
къарачай-малкъар: Къазакъстан
ქართული: ყაზახეთი
kaszëbsczi: Kazachstan
қазақша: Қазақстан
kernowek: Pow Kazagh
Kinyarwanda: Kazakisitani
Kiswahili: Kazakhstan
Kongo: Kazakhstan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kazakstan
kurdî: Qazaxistan
Кыргызча: Казакстан
Ladino: Kazakistan
latgaļu: Kazaheja
Latina: Kazachstania
latviešu: Kazahstāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Kasachstan
lietuvių: Kazachstanas
Ligure: Kazakistan
Limburgs: Kazachstan
lingála: Kazakstáni
Livvinkarjala: Kazahstan
la .lojban.: kazaksTAN
lumbaart: Kazakistan
magyar: Kazahsztán
македонски: Казахстан
Malagasy: Kazakstàna
മലയാളം: കസാഖ്സ്ഥാൻ
Māori: Katatānga
მარგალური: ყაზახეთი
مازِرونی: قزاقستون
Bahasa Melayu: Kazakhstan
Baso Minangkabau: Kazakhstan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Kazakhstan
мокшень: Казахстан
монгол: Хасаг улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကာဇက်စတန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Cazaquistan
Dorerin Naoero: Kadaketan
Nederlands: Kazachstan
Nedersaksies: Kazakstan
नेपाली: कजाख्स्तान
नेपाल भाषा: कजाख्स्तान
нохчийн: Кхазакхстан
Nordfriisk: Kasachstaan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kazakstaan
norsk: Kasakhstan
norsk nynorsk: Kasakhstan
Novial: Kasakstan
occitan: Cazacstan
олык марий: Казахстан
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qozogʻiston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਜ਼ਾਖ਼ਸਤਾਨ
Pangasinan: Kazakstan
پنجابی: قازقستان
Papiamentu: Kazachstan
Patois: Kazaxtan
Перем Коми: Казахстан
Piemontèis: Kazakistan
Plattdüütsch: Kasachstan
polski: Kazachstan
português: Cazaquistão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qazaqstan
qırımtatarca: Qazahistan
română: Kazahstan
rumantsch: Kasachstan
Runa Simi: Qasaqsuyu
русиньскый: Казахстан
русский: Казахстан
саха тыла: Казахстаан
Gagana Samoa: Kasakisitana
संस्कृतम्: कजाकस्थान
Scots: Kazakhstan
Seeltersk: Kasachstan
sicilianu: Kazakistan
Simple English: Kazakhstan
SiSwati: IKhazakhi
slovenčina: Kazachstan
slovenščina: Kazahstan
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Каꙁахстанъ
ślůnski: Kazachstůn
Soomaaliga: Kasakhstan
کوردی: کازاخستان
Sranantongo: Kazachstan
српски / srpski: Казахстан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kazahstan
Basa Sunda: Kazakstan
suomi: Kazakstan
svenska: Kazakstan
Tagalog: Kazakhstan
tarandíne: Kazakistan
татарча/tatarça: Казакъстан
తెలుగు: కజకస్తాన్
тоҷикӣ: Қазоқистон
Türkçe: Kazakistan
Türkmençe: Gazagystan
тыва дыл: Казахстан
удмурт: Казахстан
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Kazakhstan
українська: Казахстан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قازاقىستان
Vahcuengh: Hahsazgwswhdanj
vèneto: Kazakistan
vepsän kel’: Kazahstan
Tiếng Việt: Kazakhstan
Volapük: Kazakistän
Võro: Kasastan
文言: 哈薩克
West-Vlams: Kazachstan
Winaray: Kasahistan
Xitsonga: Kazakhstan
ייִדיש: קאזאכסטאן
Yorùbá: Kàsàkstán
粵語: 哈薩克
Zazaki: Qazaxıstan
Zeêuws: Kazachstan
žemaitėška: Kazakstans
डोटेली: कजाख्स्तान
ГӀалгӀай: ГІазакхстане
Kabɩyɛ: Kazakisitanɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Cazacstan