Judea

Map showing Judea (south of Samaria and the Galilee)
A verdant green hill in Judea

Judea or Judæa (ə/;[1] from Hebrew: יהודה‎, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Greek: Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; Latin: Iūdaea, Arabic: يهودا‎, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of the region of Palestine. The name originates from the Hebrew name "Yehudah", a son of the Jewish patriarch Jacob/Israel, and Yehudah's progeny forming the biblical Israelite tribe of Judah (Yehudah) and later the associated Kingdom of Judah, which the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia dates from 934 until 586 BCE.[2] The name of the region continued to be incorporated through the Babylonian conquest, Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman periods as Yehud, Yehud Medinata, Hasmonean Judea, and consequently Herodian Judea and Roman Judea, respectively.

As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian. A large part of Judea was included in Jordanian West Bank between 1948 and 1967 (i.e., the "West Bank" of the Kingdom of Jordan).[3][4] The term Judea as a geographical term was revived by the Israeli government in the 20th century as part of the Israeli administrative district name Judea and Samaria Area for the territory generally referred to as the West Bank.[5]

Etymology

The name Judea is a Greek and Roman adaptation of the name "Judah", which originally encompassed the territory of the Israelite tribe of that name and later of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).

Judea was sometimes used as the name for the entire region, including parts beyond the river Jordan.[6] In 200 CE Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius (Church History 1.7.14), described "Nazara" (Nazareth) as a village in Judea.[7]

"Judea" was a name used by English speakers for the hilly internal part of Palestine until the Jordanian rule of the area in 1948.[citation needed] For example, the borders of the two states to be established according to the UN's 1947 partition scheme[8] were officially described using the terms "Judea" and "Samaria" and in its reports to the League of Nations Mandatory Committee, as in 1937, the geographical terms employed were "Samaria and Judea".[9] Jordan called the area ad-difa’a al-gharbiya (translated into English as the "West Bank").[10] "Yehuda" is the Hebrew term used for the area in modern Israel since the region was captured and occupied by Israel in 1967.[11]

Other Languages
العربية: يهودا (منطقة)
asturianu: Xudea
تۆرکجه: یهودیه
беларуская: Іўдзея
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Юдэя
български: Юдея
bosanski: Judeja
català: Judea
Чӑвашла: Иудея
čeština: Judsko
dansk: Judæa
Deutsch: Judäa
Ελληνικά: Ιουδαία
español: Judea
Esperanto: Judeo
euskara: Judea
فارسی: یهودیه
føroyskt: Judea
français: Judée
Frysk: Judeä
Gaeilge: Iúdáia
Gàidhlig: Judea
galego: Xudea
한국어: 유다이아
hrvatski: Judeja
Bahasa Indonesia: Yudea
Ирон: Иудей
italiano: Giudea
ქართული: იუდეა
latviešu: Jūdeja
magyar: Júdea
मराठी: जुदेआ
Nāhuatl: Judea
Nederlands: Judea
日本語: ユダヤ
norsk: Judea
norsk nynorsk: Judea
Nouormand: Palestène
occitan: Judèa
Plattdüütsch: Judäa
polski: Judea
português: Judeia
русский: Иудея
Scots: Judea
Simple English: Judea
slovenčina: Judsko
slovenščina: Judeja
српски / srpski: Јудеја
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Judeja
suomi: Juudea
svenska: Judeen
தமிழ்: யூதேயா
українська: Юдея
اردو: یہودیہ
vèneto: Zudia
Tiếng Việt: Judea
ייִדיש: ארץ יהודה
中文: 犹地亚