|100,000 in Israel (2005)|
10,000 in Turkey and 12,000 elsewhere (2007)
60,000 – 400,000 total speakers
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (autonym judeoespañol;
Judaeo-Spanish, once the
In recent decades in Israel, the United States and Spain, the language has come to be referred to as Ladino (לאדינו), literally meaning "Latin". However, some of its speakers consider that term to be incorrect, thinking of Ladino rather as of the "semi-sacred" language used in word-by-word tranlations from the Bible, but not the spoken vernacular. The language is also called Judeo-Espagnol,[note 1] Judeoespañol, Sefardí, Judío, and Espanyol or Español sefardita;
An entry in
In the Judaeo-Spanish press of the 19th and 20th centuries the native authors referred to the language almost exclusively as Espanyol, which was also the name that its native speakers spontaneously gave to it for as long as it was their primary spoken language. More rarely, the bookish Judeo-Espanyol has also been used since the late 19th century.
The derivation of the name Ladino is complicated. Before the
Informally, especially in modern Israel, many speakers use Ladino to mean Judaeo-Spanish as a whole. The language used to be regulated by a body called the
Ladino is not spoken, rather, it is the product of a word-for-word translation of Hebrew or Aramaic biblical or liturgical texts made by rabbis in the Jewish schools of Spain. In these translations, a specific Hebrew or Aramaic word always corresponded to the same Spanish word, as long as no exegetical considerations prevented this. In short, Ladino is only Hebrew clothed in Spanish, or Spanish with Hebrew syntax. The famous Ladino translation of the Bible, the
Biblia de Ferrara(1553), provided inspiration for the translation of numerous Spanish Christian Bibles."
That Judaeo-Spanish ladino should not be confused with the ladino or