Josiah Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood by George Stubbs, 1780, enamel on a Wedgwood ceramic tablet - Wedgwood Museum - Barlaston, Stoke-on-Trent, England - DSC09537.jpg
Josiah Wedgwood by George Stubbs, 1780, enamel on a Wedgwood ceramic tablet
Born(1730-07-12)12 July 1730
Died3 January 1795(1795-01-03) (aged 64)
Etruria, Staffordshire, England
Resting placeStoke-on-Trent, England
OccupationPotter, entrepreneur
Etruria Hall, the family home, built 1768–1771 by Joseph Pickford. It was restored as part of the 1986 Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival and is now part of a four-star hotel.

Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur. He founded the Wedgwood company. He is credited with the industrialisation of the manufacture of pottery; "it was by intensifying the division of labour that Wedgwood brought about the reduction of cost which enabled his pottery to find markets in all parts of Britain, and also of Europe and America."[1] The renewed classical enthusiasms of the late 1760s and early 1770s were of major importance to his sales promotion.[2] His expensive goods were in much demand from the nobility, while he used emulation effects to market cheaper sets to the rest of society.[3] Every new invention that Wedgwood produced – green glaze, creamware, black basalt and jasper – was quickly copied.[4] Having once achieved perfection in production, he achieved perfection in sales and distribution.[5] His showrooms in London gave the public the chance to see his complete range of tableware.[6]

Meeting the demands of the consumer revolution and growth in wealth of the middle classes that helped drive the Industrial Revolution in Britain, Wedgwood is credited as the inventor of modern marketing.[7] He pioneered direct mail, money back guarantees, travelling salesmen, carrying pattern boxes for display, self-service, free delivery, buy one get one free, and illustrated catalogues.[8]

A prominent abolitionist, Wedgwood is remembered too for his "Am I Not a Man And a Brother?" anti-slavery medallion. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, and he was the grandfather of Charles and Emma Darwin.

Biography

Early life

Born in Burslem, Staffordshire, the eleventh and last child of potter Thomas Wedgwood (d. 1739) and Mary Wedgwood (née Stringer; d. 1766), Josiah was raised within a family of English Dissenters, he was the grandson of a Unitarian minister and was an active Unitarian. By the age of nine, he was proving himself to be a skilled potter. He survived a childhood bout of smallpox to serve as an apprentice potter under his eldest brother Thomas Wedgwood IV.[9] Smallpox left Josiah with a permanently weakened knee, which made him unable to work the foot pedal of a potter's wheel. As a result, he concentrated from an early age on designing pottery and then making it with the input of other potters. The pottery created in his father's and brother's business was inexpensive and low quality, black and mottled in color.[9]

In his early twenties, Wedgwood began working with the most renowned English pottery-maker of his day, Thomas Whieldon, who eventually became his business partner in 1754. Wedgwood also began to study the new science of chemistry, seeking to understand the materials science of fire, clay, and minerals and to develop better clays and glazes for potter-making. Following an accident in 1762, Wedgwood met Joseph Priestley, another Dissenter and a chemist who gave Wedgwood advice on chemistry.[9] Wedgwood's experimentation with a wide variety of techniques coincided with the burgeoning of the nearby industrial city of Manchester. Inspired, Wedgwood leased the Ivy Works in the town of Burslem. From 1768 to 1780 he partnered with Thomas Bentley, a potter of sophistication and astute taste.[10] Over the course of the next decade, his experimentation (and a considerable injection of capital from his marriage to a richly endowed distant cousin) transformed the sleepy artisan works into the first true pottery factory.

Vase on Stand with Inverted Neck, Josiah Wedgwood and Sons and Thomas Bentley, before 1780, black basalt - Chazen Museum of Art

Marriage and children

In January 1764 Wedgwood married Sarah Wedgwood (1734–1815), his third cousin. They had eight children:

  • Susannah Wedgwood (3 January 1765 – 1817) married Robert Darwin and became the mother of the English naturalist Charles Darwin. Charles married Emma Wedgwood, his cousin. The doubled family inheritance of Wedgwood wealth created by his grandfather gave Charles Darwin the leisure time to formulate his theory of evolution.
  • John Wedgwood (1766–1844)
  • Richard Wedgwood (1767–1768) (died as a child)
  • Josiah Wedgwood II (1769–1843) (father of Emma Darwin, cousin and wife of Charles Darwin)
  • Thomas Wedgwood (1771–1805) (no children)
  • Catherine Wedgwood (1774–1823) (no children)
  • Sarah Wedgwood (1776–1856) (no children, very active in the abolition movement)[11]
  • Mary Anne Wedgwood (1778–86) (died as a child)

Work

Teapot, Wedgwood 'caneware', c. 1780-1785 - Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art

Wedgwood was keenly interested in the scientific advances of his day and it was this interest that underpinned his adoption of its approach and methods to revolutionize the quality of his pottery. His unique glazes began to distinguish his wares from anything else on the market.

By 1763, he was receiving orders from the highest levels of the British nobility, including Queen Charlotte. Wedgwood convinced her to let him name the line of pottery she had purchased "Queen's Ware", and trumpeted the royal association in his paperwork and stationery. Anything Wedgwood made for the Queen was automatically exhibited before it was delivered.[12] In 1764 he received his first order from abroad. Wedgwood marketed his Queen's Ware at affordable prices, everywhere in the world British trading ships sailed. In 1767 he wrote, "The demand for this sd. Creamcolour, Alias, Queen Ware, Alias, Ivory, still increases -- It is amazing how rapidly the use of it has spread all most [sic] over the whole Globe."[13]

Wedgwood tea and coffee service, 1765, on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Wedgwood's creamware revolutionised ceramic decoration worldwide.

He first opened a warehouse at Charles Street, Mayfair in London as early as 1765 and it soon became an integral part of his sales organization. In two years his trade had outgrown his rooms in Grosvenor Square.[14] In 1767 Wedgwood and Bentley drew up an agreement to divide decorative wares between them, the domestic wares being sold on Wedgwood's behalf.[15] A special display room was built to beguile the fashionable company. Wedgwood's in fact had become one of the most fashionable meeting places in London. His man had to work day and night to satisfy the demand and the crowds of visitors showed no sign of abating.[16] The proliferating decoration, the exuberant colours, and the universal gilding of rococo were banished, the splendours of baroque became distasteful; the intricacies of chinoiserie lost their favour. The demand was for purity, simplicity and antiquity.[17] To encourage this outward spread of fashion and to speed it on its way Wedgwood set up warehouses and showrooms at Bath, Liverpool and Dublin in addition to his showrooms at Etruria and in Westminster.[18] Great care was taken in timing the openings, and new goods were held back to increase their effect.[12]

Wedgwood, 1774, creamware. Plate from La Grenouilliere (Frog Marsh) service for Catherine II of Russia, Brooklyn Museum, New York

The most important of Wedgwood's early achievements in vase production was the perfection of the black stoneware body, which he called 'basalt'. This body could imitate the colour and shapes of Etruscan or Greek vases which were being excavated in Italy. In 1769 'vases was all the cry' in London; he opened a new factory called Etruria, north of Stoke. Wedgwood became what he wished to be: 'Vase Maker General to the Universe'.[19] Around 1771 he started to experiment with Jasperware, but he did not advertise this new product for a couple of years.

Sir George Strickland, 6th Baronet was asked for advice on getting models from Rome.[20] Gilding was to prove unpopular, and around 1772 Wedgwood reduced the amount of 'offensive gilding' in response to suggestions from Sir William Hamilton.[21] When English society found the uncompromisingly naked figure of the classics 'too warm' for their taste, and the ardor of the Greek gods too easily apparent, Wedgwood was quick to cloak their pagan immodesty - gowns for the girls and fig leaves for the gods were usually sufficient.[22] Just as he felt that his flowerpots would sell more if they were called 'duches of Devonshire flowerpots', his creamware more if called Queensware, so he longed for Brown, James Wyatt, and the brothers Adam to lead the architect in the use of his chimney pieces and for George Stubbs to lead the way in the use of Wedgwood plaques.

Wedgwood hoped to monopolize the aristocratic market, and thus win for his wares a special distinction, a social cachet which would filter to all classes of society. Wedgwood fully realized the value of such a lead and made the most of it by giving his pottery the name of its patron; Queensware, Royal Pattern, Russian pattern, Bedford, Oxford and Chetwynd vases for instance. Whether they owned the original or merely possessed a Wedgwood copy mattered little to Wedgwood's customers.[23] In 1773 they published the first Ornamental Catalogue, an illustrated catalogue of shapes.[15] A plaque, in Wedgwood's blue pottery style, marking the site of his London showrooms between 1774 and 1795 in Wedgwood Mews, is located at 12, Greek Street, London, W1.[24]

Horse Frightened by a Lion Jasperware by Wedgwood and Thomas Bentley, after George Stubbs, 1780.

In 1773, Catherine the Great of Imperial Russia ordered the Green Frog Service from Wedgwood, consisting of 952 pieces and over a thousand original paintings, for one of its palaces — the Kekerekeksinen Palace (palace on a frog swamp (in Finnish)), later known as Chesme Palace. Most of the painting was carried out in Wedgwood's decorating studio at Chelsea.[25] Its display, Wedgwood thought, 'would bring an immence (sic) number of People of Fashion into our Rooms. For over a month the fashionable world thronged the rooms and blocked the streets with their carriages.[26] (Catharine paid ₤ 2,700. It can still be seen in the Hermitage Museum.[27]) Strictly uneconomical in themselves, the advertising value of these productions were huge.[28]

Portland Vase Copy-Wedgwood (circa 1789)

As a leading industrialist, Wedgwood was a major backer of the Trent and Mersey Canal dug between the River Trent and River Mersey, during which time he became friends with Erasmus Darwin. Later that decade, his burgeoning business caused him to move from the smaller Ivy Works to the newly built Etruria Works, which would run for 180 years. The factory was so-named after the Etruria district of Italy, where black porcelain dating to Etruscan times was being excavated. Wedgwood found this porcelain inspiring, and his first major commercial success was its duplication with what he called "Black Basalt". He combined experiments in his art and in the technique of mass production with an interest in improved roads, canals, schools and living conditions. At Etruria, he even built a village for his workers.

Not long after the new works opened, continuing trouble with his smallpox-afflicted knee made necessary the amputation of his right leg. In 1780, his long-time business partner Thomas Bentley died, and Wedgwood turned to Darwin for help in running the business. As a result of the close association that grew up between the Wedgwood and Darwin families, Josiah's eldest daughter would later marry Erasmus' son.

To clinch his position as leader of the new fashion he sought out the famous Barberini vase as the final test of his technical skill.[17] Wedgwood's obsession was to duplicate the Portland Vase, a blue and white glass vase dating to the first century BC. For three years he worked on the project, eventually producing what he considered a satisfactory copy in 1789.

In 1784 Wedgwood was exporting nearly 80% of his total produce. By 1790 he had sold to every city in Europe.[29] To give his customers a greater sense of the rarity of his goods, he strictly limited the number of jaspers on display in his rooms at any given time.

After passing on his company to his sons, Wedgwood died at home, probably of cancer of the jaw, in 1795. He was buried three days later in the parish church of Stoke-on-Trent.[30] Seven years later a marble memorial tablet commissioned by his sons was installed there.[31]

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