Stalin was born Ioseb Jughashvili in
Gori on 18 December [
O.S. 6 December] 1878.
[a] He was the son of
Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and
Ekaterina "Keke" Geladze, who had married in May 1872, and had lost two sons in infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically
Georgian and Stalin grew up speaking the
Georgian language. Gori was then part of the
Russian Empire, and was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom were Georgian but with Armenian, Russian, and Jewish minorities. Stalin was
baptised on 17 December. He earned the childhood nickname of "Soso", a diminutive of Iosif (Joseph). Beso was a cobbler and in the early years of their marriage, the couple prospered. However, he did not adapt to changing footwear fashions and his business began to fail. The family soon found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years. Given this situation, the historian
Robert Conquest later suggested that Stalin's class background was "uncertain and indeterminate".
Stalin in 1894, at the age of 15
Beso was also an
alcoholic, and drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the
abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend,
Father Christopher Charkviani. She worked as a house cleaner and launderer for several local families who were sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had previously achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 he enrolled at the Gori Church School. This was normally reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that Stalin received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing
his own poetry, and singing as a choirboy. He got into many fights, and a childhood friend later noted that Stalin "was the best but also the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems; in 1884, he contracted
smallpox and was left with facial pock scars. Aged 12, he was seriously injured after being hit by a
phaeton, resulting in a lifelong disability to his left arm.
At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the
Spiritual Seminary in
Tiflis. He enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a
scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate. Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the seminary. Stalin was again academically successful and gained high grades. He
continued writing poetry; five of his poems were published under the pseudonym of "Soselo" in
Ilia Chavchavadze's newspaper Iveria ('Georgia'). Thematically, they dealt with topics like nature, land, and patriotism. According to Stalin's biographer
Simon Sebag Montefiore, they became "minor Georgian classics", and were included in various anthologies of Georgian poetry over the coming years. As he grew older, Stalin lost interest in his studies; his grades dropped, and he was repeatedly confined to a cell for his rebellious behaviour. Teachers complained that he declared himself an
atheist, chatted in class and refused to doff his hat to monks.
Stalin joined a forbidden book club active at the school; he was particularly influenced by
Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863 pro-revolutionary novel
What Is To Be Done?. Another influential text was
The Patricide, with Stalin adopting the nickname "Koba" from that of the book's bandit protagonist. He also read
Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist
Karl Marx. Stalin devoted himself to Marx's socio-political theory,
Marxism, which was then on the rise in Georgia, one of various forms of
socialism opposed to the empire's governing
Tsarist authorities. At night, he attended secret workers' meetings, and was introduced to Silibistro "Silva" Jibladze, the Marxist founder of
Mesame Dasi ('Third Group'), a Georgian socialist group. In April 1899, Stalin left the seminary and never returned, although the school encouraged him to come back.
Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party: 1899–1904
Stalin in 1902; the image had been modified during Stalin's later life
In October 1899, Stalin began work as a
meteorologist at a Tiflis observatory, a position that allowed him to read while on duty. Stalin gave classes in socialist theory and attracted a group of young men around him. He co-organised a secret mass meeting of workers for
May Day 1900, at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. By this point, the empire's secret police—the
Okhrana—were aware of Stalin's activities within Tiflis' revolutionary milieu. They attempted to arrest him in March 1901, but he escaped and went into hiding, living off the donations of friends and sympathisers. Remaining underground, he helped to plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities. He continued to evade arrest by using aliases and sleeping in different apartments. In November 1901, he was elected to the Tiflis Committee of the
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a Marxist party founded in 1898.
That month, Stalin travelled to the port city of
Batumi. His militant rhetoric proved divisive among the city's Marxists, with some suspecting that he might be an
agent provocateur secretly working for the government. He found employment at the
Rothschild refinery storehouse, where he co-organised two workers' strikes. After several strike leaders were arrested, he co-organised a mass public demonstration that led to the storming of the prison; troops fired upon the demonstrators, 13 of whom were killed. Stalin organised a second mass demonstration on the day of their funeral, before being arrested in April 1902. He was initially held at Batumi Prison, and later moved to the more secure
Kutaisi Prison. In mid-1903, Stalin was sentenced to three years of exile in eastern Siberia.
Stalin left Batumi in October, arriving at the small Siberian town of
Novaya Uda in late November. There, he lived in a two-room peasant's house, sleeping in the building's larder. Stalin made several escape attempts; on the first he made it to
Balagansk before returning due to
frostbite. His second attempt was successful and he made it to Tiflis. Here, he co-edited a Georgian Marxist newspaper,
Proletariatis Brdzola ("Proletarian Struggle"), with
Philip Makharadze. He called for the Georgian Marxist movement to split-off from its Russian counterpart, resulting in several RSDLP members claiming that his views were contrary to the ethos of
Marxist internationalism and calling for his expulsion from the party. During his exile, the RSDLP had split between
Mensheviks. Stalin detested many of the Mensheviks in Georgia and aligned himself with the Bolsheviks. Although Stalin established a Bolshevik stronghold in the mining town of
Chiatura, Bolshevism remained a minority force in the Menshevik-dominated Georgian revolutionary scene.
The Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1912
In January 1905, government troops
massacred protesters in
Saint Petersburg. Unrest soon spread across the Russian Empire in what came to be known as the
Revolution of 1905. Georgia was one of the regions particularly affected. In February, Stalin was in
Baku when ethnic violence broke out between Armenians and
Azeris; at least 2,000 were killed. Stalin publicly lambasted the "pogroms against Jews and Armenians" as being part of Tsar
Nicholas II's attempts to "buttress his despicable throne". He formed a Bolshevik Battle Squad which he used to try and keep Baku's warring ethnic factions apart, also using the unrest to steal printing equipment. Amid the growing violence throughout Georgia, Stalin formed further Battle Squads, with the Mensheviks doing the same. Stalin's Squads disarmed local police and troops, raided government arsenals, and raised funds through
protection rackets on large local businesses and mines. They launched attacks on the government's
Cossack troops and pro-Tsarist
Black Hundreds, co-ordinating some of their operations with the Menshevik militia.
Stalin first met Vladimir Lenin (pictured) at a 1905 conference in Tampere
In November 1905, the Georgian Bolsheviks elected Stalin as one of their delegates to a Bolshevik conference in Saint Petersburg. On arrival, he met Lenin's wife
Nadezhda Krupskaya, who informed him that the venue had been moved to
Tampere in the
Grand Duchy of Finland. At the conference Stalin met Lenin for the first time. Although Stalin held Lenin in deep respect, he was vocal in his disagreement with Lenin's view that the Bolsheviks should field candidates for the
forthcoming election to the
State Duma; Stalin saw the parliamentary process as a waste of time. In April 1906, Stalin attended the
RSDLP Fourth Congress in
Stockholm; this was his first trip outside the Russian Empire. At the conference, the RSDLP—then led by its Menshevik majority—agreed that it would not raise funds using armed robbery. Lenin and Stalin disagreed with this decision, and later privately discussed how they could continue the robberies for the Bolshevik cause.
Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at
Senaki in July 1906. In March 1907 she bore a son,
Yakov. By that year—according to the historian
Robert Service—Stalin had established himself as "Georgia's leading Bolshevik". He attended the
Fifth RSDLP Congress, held in London in May–June 1907. After returning to Tiflis, Stalin organized the
robbing of a large delivery of money to the Imperial Bank in June 1907. His gang ambushed the armed convoy in
Yerevan Square with gunfire and home-made bombs. Around 40 people were killed, but all of his gang escaped alive.
After the heist, Stalin settled in Baku with his wife and son. There, Mensheviks confronted Stalin about the robbery and voted to expel him from the RSDLP, but he took no notice of them. In Baku, Stalin secured Bolshevik domination of the local RSDLP branch, and edited two Bolshevik newspapers, Bakinsky Proletary and Gudok ("Whistle"). In August 1907, he attended the
Seventh Congress of the
Second International—an international socialist organisation—in
Stuttgart, Germany. In November 1907, his wife died of
typhus, and he left his son with her family in Tiflis. In Baku he had reassembled his gang, the Outfit, which continued to attack Black Hundreds and raised finances by running protection rackets, counterfeiting currency, and carrying out robberies. They also kidnapped the children of several wealthy figures in order to extract ransom money. In early 1908, he travelled to the Swiss city of
Geneva to meet with Lenin and the prominent Russian Marxist
Georgi Plekhanov, although the latter exasperated him.
In March 1908, Stalin was arrested and interred in Bailov Prison, where he led the imprisoned Bolsheviks, organised discussion groups, and ordered the killing of suspected informants. He was eventually sentenced to two years exile in the village of
Vologda Province, arriving there in February 1909. In June, he escaped the village and made it to
Kotlas disguised as a woman and from there to Saint Petersburg. In March 1910, he was arrested again, and sent back to Solvychegodsk. There he had affairs with at least two women; his landlady, Maria Kuzakova, later gave birth to his second son,
Konstantin. In June 1911, Stalin was given permission to move to
Vologda, where he stayed for two months, having a relationship with Pelageya Onufrieva. He proceeded to Saint Petersburg, where he was arrested in September 1911, and sentenced to a further three-year exile in Vologda.
Editing Pravda and the Central Committee: 1912–1917
Stalin in 1911; these mugshots were taken by the Tsarist secret police
While Stalin was in exile, the first
Bolshevik Central Committee had been elected at the
Prague Conference, after which Lenin and
Grigory Zinoviev invited Stalin to join it. Still in Vologda, Stalin agreed, remaining a Central Committee member for the rest of his life. Lenin believed that Stalin, as a Georgian, would be useful in helping to secure support for the Bolsheviks from the Empire's minority ethnicities. In February 1912, Stalin escaped to Saint Petersburg, tasked with converting the Bolshevik weekly newspaper, Zvezda ("Star") into a daily,
Pravda ("Truth"). The new newspaper was launched in April 1912, although Stalin's role as editor was kept secret. In May 1912, he was arrested again and imprisoned in the
Shpalerhy Prison, before being sentenced to three years exile in Siberia. In July, he arrived at the Siberian village of
Narym, where he shared a room with fellow Bolshevik
Yakov Sverdlov. After two months, Stalin and Sverdlov escaped back to Saint Petersburg.
During a brief period back in Tiflis, Stalin and the Outfit planned the ambush of a mail coach, during which most of the group—although not Stalin—were apprehended by the authorities. Stalin returned to Saint Petersburg, where he continued editing and writing articles for Pravda. After the
October 1912 Duma elections resulted in six Bolsheviks and six Mensheviks being elected, Stalin wrote articles calling for reconciliation between the two Marxist factions, for which he was criticised by Lenin. In late 1912, he twice crossed into the
Austro-Hungarian Empire to visit Lenin in
Kraków, eventually bowing to Lenin's opposition to reunification with the Mensheviks.
In January 1913 Stalin travelled to
Vienna, there focusing his attention on the 'national question' of how the Bolsheviks should deal with the Russian Empire's national and ethnic minorities. Lenin wanted to attract these groups to the Bolshevik cause by offering them the right of secession from the Russian state, but at the same time he hoped that they would remain part of a future Bolshevik-governed Russia. Stalin's finished article was titled
Marxism and the National Question; Lenin was very happy with it. According to Montefiore, this was "Stalin's most famous work". The article was published under the pseudonym of "K. Stalin", a name he had been using since 1912. This name derived from the Russian language word for
steel (stal), and has been translated as "Man of Steel"; it may have also been intended to imitate Lenin's pseudonym. Stalin retained this name for the rest of his life, possibly because it had been used on the article which established his reputation among the Bolsheviks.
In February 1913, Stalin was arrested while back in Saint Petersburg. He was sentenced to four years exile in
Turukhansk, a remote part of Siberia from which escape was particularly difficult. In August, he arrived in the village of
Monastyrskoe, although after four weeks was relocated to the hamlet of
Kostino. In March 1914, concerned over a potential escape attempt, the authorities moved Stalin to the hamlet of
Kureika on the edge of the
Arctic Circle. In the hamlet, Stalin had an affair with Lidia Pereprygia, who was thirteen at the time and thus a year under the legal
age of consent in Tsarist Russia. Circa December 1914, Pereprygia gave birth to Stalin's child, although the infant soon died. She gave birth to another of his children, Alexander, circa April 1917. In Kureika, Stalin lived closely with the indigenous
Ostyak, and spent much of his time fishing.
The Russian Revolution: 1917
While Stalin was in exile, Russia entered the
First World War, and in October 1916 Stalin and other exiled Bolsheviks were conscripted into the Russian Army, leaving for Monastyrskoe. They arrived in
Krasnoyarsk in February 1917, where a medical examiner ruled Stalin unfit for military service due to his crippled arm. Stalin was required to serve four more months on his exile, and he successfully requested that he serve it in nearby
Achinsk. Stalin was in the city when the
February Revolution took place; uprisings broke out in Petrograd—as Saint Petersburg had been renamed—and Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, to be replaced by a
Provisional Government. In a celebratory mood, Stalin travelled by train to Petrograd in March. There, Stalin and fellow Bolshevik
Lev Kamenev assumed control of Pravda, and Stalin was appointed the Bolshevik representative to the Executive Committee of the
Petrograd Soviet, an influential council of the city's workers. In April, Stalin came third in the Bolshevik elections for the party's Central Committee; Lenin came first and Zinoviev came second. This reflected his senior standing in the party at the time.
The existing government of landlords and capitalists must be replaced by a new government, a government of workers and peasants.
The existing pseudo-government which was not elected by the people and which is not accountable to the people must be replaced by a government recognised by the people, elected by representatives of the workers, soldiers and peasants and held accountable to their representatives.
—Stalin's editorial, October 1917
Stalin helped to organise the
July Days uprising, an armed display of strength by Bolshevik supporters. After the armed demonstration was suppressed, the Provisional Government initiated a crackdown on the Bolsheviks, raiding Pravda. During this raid, Stalin smuggled Lenin out of the newspaper's office and took charge of the Bolshevik leader's safety, moving him between Petrograd safe houses before smuggling him to
Razliv. In Lenin's absence, Stalin continued editing Pravda and served as acting leader of the Bolsheviks, overseeing the party's
Sixth Congress, which was held covertly. Lenin began calling for the Bolsheviks to seize power by toppling the Provisional Government in a coup. Stalin and fellow senior Bolshevik
Leon Trotsky both endorsed Lenin's plan of action, but it was initially opposed by Kamenev and other party members. Lenin returned to Petrograd and at a meeting of the Central Committee on 10 October, he secured a majority in favour of a coup.
On 24 October, police raided the Bolshevik newspaper offices, smashing machinery and presses; Stalin salvaged some of this equipment in order to continue his activities. In the early hours of 25 October, Stalin joined Lenin in a Central Committee meeting in the
Smolny Institute, from where the Bolshevik coup—the
October Revolution—was directed. Bolshevik militia seized Petrograd's electric power station, main post office, state bank, telephone exchange, and several bridges. A Bolshevik-controlled ship, the
Aurora, opened fire on the
Winter Palace; the Provisional Government's assembled delegates surrendered and were arrested by the Bolsheviks. Although he had been tasked with briefing the Bolshevik delegates of the
Second Congress of Soviets about the developing situation, Stalin's role in the coup had not been publicly visible. Trotsky and other later Bolshevik opponents of Stalin used this as evidence that his role in the coup had been insignificant, although several historians reject this. According to the historian
Oleg Khlevniuk, Stalin "filled an important role [in the October Revolution]... as a senior Bolshevik, member of the party's Central Committee, and editor of its main newspaper".