Jordan River

Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן, Nahar ha-Yarden
Arabic: نهر الأردن, Nahr al-Urdun
)
River
20100923 mer morte13.JPG
Jordan River
Name origin: Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, “descender”), from ירד (yarad, “descended”)[1]
CountryJordan, Israel, Syria, State of Palestine
RegionsMiddle East, Eastern Mediterranean littoral
DistrictGalilee
Tributaries
 - leftBanias River, Dan River, Yarmouk River, Zarqa River
 - rightHasbani or Snir River, Iyyon Stream
LandmarksSea of Galilee, Baptismal site, Dead Sea
Source
 - locationAnti-Lebanon Mountain Range at Mount Hermon, Golan Heights
 - elevation2,814 m (9,232 ft)
MouthDead Sea
 - elevation−416 m (−1,365 ft)
Length251 km (156 mi)
JordanRiver en.svg
The Jordan River runs along the border between Jordan, the Palestinian West Bank, Israel and southwestern Syria.

The Jordan River (also River Jordan; Hebrew: נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּןNahar ha-Yarden, Classical Syriac: ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ‎, Arabic: نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّNahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a 251-kilometre-long (156 mi) river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea. Jordan and the Golan Heights border the river to the east, while the West Bank and Israel lie to its west. Both Jordan and the West Bank take their names from the river.

The river has a major significance in Judaism and Christianity since many believe that the Israelites crossed it into the Promised Land and that Jesus of Nazareth was baptised by John the Baptist in it.[2]

Geography

River Jordan draining into the Dead Sea

The Jordan River has an upper course from its sources to the Sea of Galilee, and a lower course south of the Sea of Galilee down to the Dead Sea. In traditional terminology, the upper course (or most of it) is commonly referred to as passing through the "Hula Valley", as opposed to "Upper Jordan Valley"; the Sea of Galilee through which the river passes is a separate entity; and the term Jordan Valley is reserved for the lower course.

Over its upper course, the river drops rapidly in a 75-kilometre (47 mi) run to the once large and swampy Lake Hula, which is slightly above sea level. Exiting the now much diminished lake, it goes through an even steeper drop over the 25 kilometres (16 mi) down to the Sea of Galilee, which it enters at its northern end. The Jordan deposits much of the silt it is carrying within the lake, which it leaves again near its southern tip. At that point the river is situated about 210 metres below sea level. The last 120-kilometre (75 mi)-long section follows what is commonly termed the "Jordan Valley", which has less gradient (the total drop is another 210 metres) so that the river meanders before entering the Dead Sea, a terminal lake about 422 metres below sea level with no outlet. Two major tributaries enter from the east during this last section: the Yarmouk River and Zarqa River.

Its section north of the Sea of Galilee is within the boundaries of Israel, and forms the western boundary of the Golan Heights. South of the lake, it forms the border between the Kingdom of Jordan (to the east), and Israel (to the west).

Tributaries

Aerial view, 1938

The streams coming together to create the River Jordan in its upper basin are, west to east:

  • Iyyon (Hebrew: עיון Iyyon, Arabic: دردره Dardara or براغيث Braghith – on old PEF maps (1871–77) as Wadi el-Kharrar in the Merj 'Ayun area and Nahr Bareighit in its lower part), a stream which flows from Lebanon.
  • Hasbani (Arabic: الحاصباني Hasbani, Hebrew: either שניר Snir or Hatzbani), a stream which flows from Mount Lebanon[citation needed].
  • Dan (Arabic: اللدان Leddan, Hebrew: דן Dan), a stream whose source is also at the base of Mount Hermon.
  • Banias (Arabic: بانياس Banias, Hebrew: either Banias or חרמון Hermon), a stream arising from a spring at Banias at the foot of Mount Hermon.

South of the Sea of Galilee the Jordan River receives the waters of further tributaries, the main ones being

Smaller tributaries in this segment are

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Jordaanrivier
Ænglisc: Iordan
العربية: نهر الأردن
تۆرکجه: اوردن چایی
беларуская: Іардан (рака)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ярдан
भोजपुरी: जॉर्डन नदी
български: Йордан (река)
Boarisch: Jordan
bosanski: Jordan (rijeka)
brezhoneg: Jordan (stêr)
català: Riu Jordà
Cebuano: Naẖal Senir
čeština: Jordán
Deutsch: Jordan
eesti: Jordan
español: Río Jordán
Esperanto: Jordano
فارسی: رود اردن
français: Jourdain
Gàidhlig: Abhainn Iòrdan
galego: Río Xordán
한국어: 요르단강
हिन्दी: जॉर्डन नदी
hornjoserbsce: Jordan
hrvatski: Jordan (rijeka)
Bahasa Indonesia: Sungai Yordan
Ирон: Иордан
íslenska: Jórdan
עברית: נהר הירדן
Basa Jawa: Kali Yordan
Kabɩyɛ: Yɔrdaŋ Pɔɔ
ქართული: იორდანე
kaszëbsczi: Jordan (rzéka)
қазақша: Иордан
Kiswahili: Yordani (mto)
Latina: Iordanis
latviešu: Jordāna
lietuvių: Jordanas
la .lojban.: jordo rirxe
македонски: Јордан (река)
Malagasy: Jordana (ony)
მარგალური: იორდანე
Bahasa Melayu: Sungai Jordan
Nederlands: Jordaan (rivier)
日本語: ヨルダン川
norsk nynorsk: Jordanelva
occitan: Jordan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Iordan (daryo)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਾਰਡਨ ਦਰਿਆ
پنجابی: دریاۓ اردن
português: Rio Jordão
română: Râul Iordan
Runa Simi: Urdun mayu
русский: Иордан
саха тыла: Иордаан
संस्कृतम्: जार्डन्-नदी
sardu: Giordanu
sicilianu: Ciumi Giurdanu
Simple English: Jordan River
slovenčina: Jordán
slovenščina: Jordan
српски / srpski: Јордан (река)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jordan (rijeka)
suomi: Jordan
svenska: Jordan
Türkçe: Şeria Nehri
українська: Йордан (річка)
Tiếng Việt: Sông Jordan
Winaray: Salog Jordan
吴语: 约旦河
ייִדיש: ירדן טייך
粵語: 約旦河
中文: 约旦河