Jnana

In Indian philosophy and religion, jñāna (Sanskrit, pronounced gya:nə) (Pali: ñāṇa) or gyan/gian (Hindi: jñān)[1] is "knowledge".

The idea of jnana centers on a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total or divine reality (Brahman).[2]

The root jñā- is cognate to English know, as well as to the Greek γνώ- (as in γνῶσις gnosis) and Russian знание. Its antonym is ajñāna "ignorance".

In Buddhism

In Tibetan Buddhism, it refers to pure awareness that is free of conceptual encumbrances, and is contrasted with vijnana, which is a moment of 'divided knowing'. Entrance to, and progression through the ten stages of Jnana/Bhimis, will lead one to complete enlightenment and nirvana.[3]

In the Vipassanā tradition of Buddhism there are the following ñanas according to Mahasi Sayadaw.[4] As a person meditates these ñanas or "knowledges" will be experienced in order. The experience of each may be brief or may last for years and the subjective intensity of each is variable. Each ñana could also be considered a jhāna although many are not stable and the mind has no way to remain embedded in the experience. Experiencing all the ñanas will lead to the first of the Four stages of enlightenment then the cycle will start over at a subtler level.[4]

  1. Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind (nama-rupa-pariccheda-ñana) (corresponds to 1st jhana)
  2. Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggaha-ñana)
  3. Knowledge by Comprehension (sammasana-ñana)
  4. Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (udayabbaya-ñana) (corresponds to 2nd jhana)
  5. Knowledge of Dissolution (bhanga-ñana) (corresponds to 3rd jhana)
  6. Awareness of Fearfulness (bhayatupatthana-ñana)
  7. Knowledge of Misery (adinava-ñana)
  8. Knowledge of Disgust (nibbida-ñana)
  9. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance (muncitu-kamyata-ñana)
  10. Knowledge of Re-observation (patisankhanupassana-ñana)
  11. Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations (sankhar'upekkha-ñana) (corresponds to 4th jhana)
  12. Insight Leading to emergence (vutthanagamini-vipassana-ñana)
  13. Knowledge of Adaptation (anuloma-ñana) (one-time event)
  14. Maturity Knowledge (gotrabhu-ñana) (one-time event)
  15. Path Knowledge (magga-ñana) (one-time event)
  16. Fruition Knowledge (phala-ñana) (corresponds to Nibbāna)
  17. Knowledge of Reviewing (paccavekkhana-ñana)
Other Languages
eesti: Džnjaana
español: Gñana
français: Jñāna
한국어: 즈냐나
italiano: Jñāna
magyar: Dzsnyána
Nederlands: Jñāna
norsk: Jñāna
polski: Dźńana
português: Jnana
русский: Джнана
српски / srpski: Ђнана
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Đnana
ไทย: ญาณ
українська: Ґ'яна
中文: 智 (宗教)