Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

Great Jin
大金
Amba-an Ancu-un.svg
1115–1234
Location of Jin dynasty (blue), c. 1141
Location of Jin dynasty (blue), c. 1141
Circuits of Jin
Circuits of Jin
CapitalHuining Prefecture
(1122–1153)
Zhongdu
(1153–1214)
Kaifeng
(1214–1233)
Caizhou
(1233–1234)
Common languagesMiddle Chinese, Jurchen, Khitan
Religion Buddhism,
Daoism,
Confucianism,
Chinese folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 1115–1123
Taizu (first)
• 1161–1189
Shizong
• 1234
Modi (last)
Historical eraMedieval Asia
• Founded by Aguda
28 January 1115
• Destruction of the Liao dynasty
1125
• Capture of Bianliang from the Northern Song dynasty
9 January 1127
• Mongol invasion
1211
• Fall of Caizhou to the Mongol Empire
9 February 1234
Area
1126 est.[1]2,300,000 km2 (890,000 sq mi)
1142 est.3,000,000 km2 (1,200,000 sq mi)
Population
• 
50,000,000
CurrencyChinese coin, Chinese cash, and paper money
See: Jin dynasty coinage (1115–1234)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Liao dynasty
Northern Song
Mongol Empire
Southern Song
Qara Khitai
Eastern Xia
Today part ofChina, Russia, North Korea, Mongolia
Jin dynasty
Chinese name
Chinese金朝
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese大金
Literal meaningGreat Jin
Khitan name
KhitanNik, Niku
History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE
Xia dynasty c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE
Shang dynasty c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE
Zhou dynasty c. 1046 – 256 BCE
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn
   Warring States
IMPERIAL
Qin dynasty 221–206 BCE
Han dynasty 206 BCE – 220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern JinSixteen Kingdoms
Northern and Southern dynasties
420–589
Sui dynasty 581–618
Tang dynasty 618–907
  (Second Zhou dynasty 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms

907–960
Liao dynasty
907–1125
Song dynasty
960–1279
  Northern SongWestern Xia
  Southern SongJin
Yuan dynasty 1271–1368
Ming dynasty 1368–1644
Qing dynasty 1644–1912
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic of China 1949–present
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Manchuria

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin (n/),[2] lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin system for Standard Chinese.[3] It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding leader Aguda (reign 1115–1123) was of Wanyan Jurchen descent.

The Jin emerged from Taizu's rebellion against the Liao dynasty (907–1125), which held sway over northern China until the nascent Jin drove the Liao to the Western Regions, where they became known as the Western Liao. After vanquishing the Liao, the Jin launched an over hundred-year war against the Song dynasty (960–1279), which was based in southern China. Over the course of their rule, the Jurchens of Jin quickly adapted to Chinese customs, and even fortified the Great Wall against the rising Mongols. Domestically, the Jin oversaw a number of cultural and technological advancements, such as the development of gunpowder and the revival of Confucianism.

The Mongols invaded the Jin under Genghis Khan in 1211 and inflicted catastrophic defeats on Jin armies. Though the Jin seemed to suffer a never-ending wave of defeats, revolts, defections, and coups, they proved to have tenacity. The Jin only succumbed to Mongol conquest 23 years later in 1234.

Name

The Jin dynasty was officially known as the "Great Jin" at that time. Furthermore, the Jin emperors referred to their state as Zhongguo (中國) like some other non-Han dynasties.[4] Non-Han rulers expanded the definition of "China" to include non-Han peoples in addition to Han people whenever they ruled China.[5] Jin documents indicate that the usage of "China" by dynasties to refer to themselves began earlier than previously thought.[6]

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Kim-kok
한국어: 금나라
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Jin (1115-1234)
italiano: Dinastia Jīn
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gĭng-guók
монгол: Алтан улс
日本語: 金 (王朝)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Szin
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាណាចក្រជិន
русский: Цзинь (1115—1234)
Simple English: Jin dynasty
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dinastija Jin (1115–1234)
українська: Династія Цзінь
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Kim
文言: 金朝
吴语: 金国
粵語: 金朝
中文: 金朝