Jiaqing Emperor

Jiaqing Emperor
清 佚名 《清仁宗嘉庆皇帝朝服像》.jpg
Prince Jia of the First Rank
7th Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Reign9 February 1796 – 2 September 1820
PredecessorQianlong Emperor
SuccessorDaoguang Emperor
RegentQianlong Emperor (1796–1799)
BornAisin Gioro Yongyan
(愛新覺羅 永琰)
(1760-11-13)13 November 1760
(乾隆二十五年 十月 六日)
Old Summer Palace
Died2 September 1820(1820-09-02) (aged 59)
(嘉慶二十五年 七月 二十五日)
Chengde Mountain Resort
Chang Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
Empress Xiaoshurui
(m. 1774; died 1797)

Empress Xiaoherui (m. 1790–1820)
IssueDaoguang Emperor
Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank
Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank
Mianyu, Prince Huiduan of the First Rank
Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank
Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank
Full name
Aisin Gioro Yongyan
(愛新覺羅 顒琰)
Manchu: Yong yan (ᠶᠣᠩ ᠶᠠᠨ)
Era dates
(嘉慶; 9 February 1796 – 2 February 1821)
Manchu: Saicungga fengšen (ᠰᠠᡳᠴᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡝᠩᡧᡝᠨ)
Mongolian: Сайшаалт ерөөлт (ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠦ)
Posthumous name
Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui
Manchu: Sunggiyen hūwangdi (ᠰᡠᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ
Temple name
Manchu: Žindzung (ᡰᡳᠨᡯᡠᠩ)
HouseAisin Gioro
FatherQianlong Emperor
MotherEmpress Xiaoyichun
Jiaqing Emperor
Traditional Chinese嘉慶帝
Simplified Chinese嘉庆帝

The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favorite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire while curbing the smuggling of opium into China.

Early years

Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.

Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner.

The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia").

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Ka-khèng Hông-tè
Deutsch: Jiaqing
español: Jiaqing
français: Jiaqing
galego: Jiaqing
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kâ-khin Fòng-ti
한국어: 가경제
Bahasa Indonesia: Kaisar Jiaqing
italiano: Jiaqing
Bahasa Melayu: Maharaja Jiaqing
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gă-kéng Huòng-dá̤
Nederlands: Jiaqing
日本語: 嘉慶帝
polski: Jiaqing
português: Jiaqing
русский: Цзяцин
suomi: Jiaqing
Türkçe: Jiaqing
Twi: Jiaqing
українська: Юн'янь
Tiếng Việt: Gia Khánh
文言: 清仁宗
吴语: 清仁宗
粵語: 顒琰
中文: 嘉庆帝