Jharkhand

Jharkhand
State of India
An immensely resource-rich state, Jharkhand suffers from resource curse
An immensely resource-rich state, Jharkhand suffers from resource curse
Seal of Jharkhand
Seal
Location of Jharkhand
Location of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Ranchi): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35; 85.33
CountryIndia
RegionEast India
Formation15 November 2000
CapitalRanchi
Largest cityJamshedpur
Districts24
Government
 • GovernorDraupadi Murmu
 • Chief MinisterRaghubar Das (BJP)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (81 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency14
 • High CourtJharkhand High Court
Area
 • Total79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank16th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total32,988,134
 • Rank14th
 • Density414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-JH
HDIIncrease 0.578 (medium)
HDI rank33th (2016)
Literacy67.6% (31th)
Official language[2]Hindi
Websitewww.jharkhand.gov.in
Formed by the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000

Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[3] The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).

The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital.

Jharkhand suffers from resource curse;[4] It accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India,[5] but it suffers widespread poverty as 39.1% of the population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of the children under five years of age are malnourished.[6] The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities.[7]

History

Stone tools have discovered from Chota Nagpur plateau region which is from Mesolithic and Neolithic period.[8] There are ancient Cave Paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from Meso-chalcolithic period (9,000-5,000 BC).[9] There is a group of megaliths found close to Barkagaon that is about 25 km from Hazaribagh town at Punkri Barwadih, which has been proven to date back to beyond 3000 BCE.[10] During Iron age Black and red ware culture had prevalent in Chota Nagpur Plateau region. Several Iron slags, microlith, Potsherds have also discovered from Singhbhum district which is from 1400 BCE according to Carbon dating age.[11]

According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera,[12] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha, Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Kashi[citation needed] and Vajji. Jharkhand was part of greater Magadha region and was in some way culturally different from Historical Vedic religion.[13]

Samudragupta, while marching through the present-day Chotanagpur region, directed the first attack against the kingdom of Dakshina Kosala in the Mahanadi valley.[14]

In Akbarnama the region of Chhotanagpur is described as Jharkhand. The region was famous by another name Khukhra during Moghal Period. At that time Raja Madhu Singh, the 42nd Nagvanshi king was ruling at Kokhra. Consequently Kokhra was subdued by the armies of Akbar and a sum of rupees six thousand was fixed as its annual revenues payable to the Mughals.

By the advent of the reign of Jahangir, Raja Durjan Sal had come to power. He refused to pay the rent fixed by the Emperor Akbar. There was the acquisition of the diamonds found in the bed of the Sankh River in the region. On getting orders from the emperor, Ibrahim Khan marched against Kokhra in 1615 AD. The details of this invasion are mentioned in Jahangir’s memoirs, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri. Durjan Sal was arrested and all diamonds which were in the possession of him were captured. Durjan Sal taken as a captive to Patna. From there he was sent to the Imperial court and subsequently imprisoned in the fort of Gwalior.

According to Nagvanshi traditions and Col. Dalton, Raja Durjan Sal after twelve year of confinement, for identifying real and fake diamond, not only released by Emperor but also restored the prosperity taken from him in addition to his kingdom. The generous Durjan Sal further begged the Emperor to release the other Rajas who had been his companions in prison and his prayer was granted. Being pleased with Durjan Sal, Jahangir conferred the title of ‘Shah’ on the Kokhra ruler. On his return, Durjan Sal assumed the title of Maharaja and changed his surname. The reign of Durjan Sal lasted for about thirteen years. He died in 1639 or 1640 AD.[15]

The Chero King Medini Ray (1662–1674), ruled for thirteen years from 1662 to 1674 from Medininagar in Palamau.[16] His rule extended to areas in South Gaya and Hazaribagh. He attacked Navratangarh and defeated the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur.[17]

Daud Khan, who launched his invasion starting from Patna on 3 April 1660, attacked south of Gaya district and finally arrived at the Palamu Forts on 9 December 1660. The terms of surrender and payment of tribute were not acceptable to the Cheros; Daud Khan wanted complete conversion of all Hindus under the Chero rule to Islam. Following this, Khan mounted a series of attacks on the forts. Cheros defended the forts but ultimately both forts were occupied.[18]

Following the death of Medini Ray there was rivalry within the royal family of the Chero dynasty which ultimately lead to its downfall; this was engineered by the ministers and advisers in the court.[19] Chitrajeet Rai's nephew Gopal Rai betrayed him and facilitated the Patna Council of the British East India Company to attack the fort. When the new fort was attacked by Captain Camac on 28 January 1771, the Chero soldiers fought valiantly but had to retreat to the old fort on account of water shortage. This facilitated the British army to occupy the new fort located on a hill without any struggle. This location was strategic and enabled the British to mount canon supply and the old fort was besieged by the British on 19 March 1771.[20] The fort was finally occupied by the British in 1772.


British rule

In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people.

The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills in 1771.Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, West Bengal.

Santhal rebellion against Zamindari system during British Company Raj in 1855

In 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum revolted in 1820, Kol revolt in 1832. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu.

The Cheros and Kharwars again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed.[21] Then Birsa Munda revolt,[22] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.

In October 1905, the exercise of British influence over the predominantly Hindi-speaking states of Chang Bhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja, and Udaipur was transferred from the Bengal government to that of the Central Provinces, while the two Oriya-speaking states of Gangpur and Bonai were attached to the Orissa Tributary States, leaving only Kharsawan and Saraikela answerable to the Bengal governor.[23]

In 1936, all nine states were transferred to the Eastern States Agency, the officials of which came under the direct authority of the Governor-General of India, rather than under that of any Provinces.

Post-independence

After Indian independence in 1947, the rulers of the states all chose to accede to the Dominion of India. Changbhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja and Udaipur later became part of Madhya Pradesh state, but Gangpur and Bonai part of Orissa state, and Kharsawan and Saraikela part of Bihar state.[24]

After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which had made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.[25]

Jharkhand statehood

The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively under developed southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 260 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% have access to electricity while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chhattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.[26]

Naxal insurgency

Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.[27]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[28] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[28] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants fight.[29] Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[30] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[30] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[30] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[28]

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels near Kishanpur while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi. His widow, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007 and served in parliament until 2009.[31]

Other Languages
Acèh: Jharkhand
አማርኛ: ጃርኸንድ
العربية: جهارخاند
অসমীয়া: ঝাড়খণ্ড
asturianu: Jharkhand
تۆرکجه: جارکند
বাংলা: ঝাড়খণ্ড
Bân-lâm-gú: Jharkhand
беларуская: Джхаркханд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Джгаркганд
भोजपुरी: झारखंड
български: Джаркханд
བོད་ཡིག: རྗར་ཁན་ཌི།
brezhoneg: Jharkhand
català: Jharkhand
čeština: Džhárkhand
Cymraeg: Jharkhand
dansk: Jharkhand
Deutsch: Jharkhand
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖަރްކަންދު
eesti: Jharkhand
Ελληνικά: Τζαρκάντ
español: Jharkhand
Esperanto: Ĝarkhando
euskara: Jharkhand
فارسی: جارکند
Fiji Hindi: Jharkhand
français: Jharkhand
Gaeilge: Jharkhand
ગુજરાતી: ઝારખંડ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Jharkhandd
한국어: 자르칸드 주
हिन्दी: झारखण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Dźarkand
hrvatski: Jharkhand
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ঝাড়খন্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Jharkhand
íslenska: Jharkhand
italiano: Jharkhand
עברית: ג'הרקאנד
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಝಾರ್ಖಂಡ್
Kapampangan: Jharkhand
ქართული: ჯარხანდი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: جھارکھنڈ
Kiswahili: Jharkhand
لۊری شومالی: جارکأند
Latina: Jharakhanda
latviešu: Džhārkhanda
lietuvių: Džharkhandas
magyar: Dzshárkhand
मैथिली: झारखण्ड
македонски: Џарканд
മലയാളം: ഝാർഖണ്ഡ്‌
मराठी: झारखंड
მარგალური: ჯარხანდი
Bahasa Melayu: Jharkhand
монгол: Жарканд
Nederlands: Jharkhand
नेपाली: झारखण्ड
नेपाल भाषा: झारखण्ड
нохчийн: Джаркханд
Nordfriisk: Jharkhand
norsk: Jharkhand
norsk nynorsk: Jharkhand
occitan: Jharkhand
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଝାଡ଼ଖଣ୍ଡ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਝਾਰਖੰਡ
پنجابی: جھاڑکھنڈ
پښتو: جارکنډ
polski: Jharkhand
português: Jharkhand
română: Jharkhand
русский: Джаркханд
संस्कृतम्: झारखण्डराज्यम्
Scots: Jharkhand
Simple English: Jharkhand
slovenčina: Džhárkhand
српски / srpski: Џарканд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jharkhand
suomi: Jharkhand
svenska: Jharkhand
Tagalog: Jharkhand
తెలుగు: జార్ఖండ్
тоҷикӣ: Ҷарханд
Türkçe: Carkhand
українська: Джхаркханд
vèneto: Jharkhand
Tiếng Việt: Jharkhand
文言: 賈坎德邦
Winaray: Jharkhand
ייִדיש: דזשארקהאנד
Yorùbá: Jharkhand
中文: 贾坎德邦
डोटेली: झारखण्ड