State of India
An immensely resource-rich state, Jharkhand suffers from resource curse
An immensely resource-rich state, Jharkhand suffers from resource curse
Seal of Jharkhand
Location of Jharkhand
Location of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Ranchi): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35; 85.33
RegionEast India
Formation15 November 2000
Largest cityJamshedpur
 • GovernorDraupadi Murmu
 • Chief MinisterRaghubar Das (BJP)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (81 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency14
 • High CourtJharkhand High Court
 • Total79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank16th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total32,988,134
 • Rank14th
 • Density414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-JH
HDIIncrease 0.376 (low)
HDI rank19th (2007-08)
Literacy67.6% (31th)
Official language[2]Hindi
Second official languagesMaithili, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Angika, Bengali, Ho, Odia, Santali and several other languages[3]
Formed by the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000

Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[4] The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).

The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital.

Jharkhand suffers from resource curse;[5] It accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India,[6] but it suffers widespread poverty as 39.1 per cent of the population is below the poverty line and 19.6 per cent of the children under five years of age are malnourished.[7] The state is primarily rural, with only 24 per cent of the population living in cities.[8]


According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera,[9] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,[10][11] who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[12] During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha, Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Kashi and Vajji.

British rule

In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, Adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against British colonial rule:

The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills in 1771. He wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors. The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau.

Santhal rebellion against Zamindari system during British Company Raj in 1855

They revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord from Srinagar, west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes. They too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in open revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords and the British troops for two years. This is called the Lakra Kol Risings 1820–1821. Then came the great Kol Risings of 1832. This was the first biggest tribal revolt that greatly upset the British administration in Jharkhand. It was caused by an attempt by the Zamindars to oust the tribal peasants from their hereditary possessions. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu.

Then Birsa Munda revolt,[13] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon, attracted its supporters from Oraon belt of Lohardaga, Sisai and Barway.


After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which had made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.[14]

Jharkhand statehood

The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively under developed southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 260 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% have access to electricity while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chhattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.[15]

Naxal insurgency

Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.[16]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[17] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[17] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants[18] fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[19] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[19] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[19] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[17]

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels near Kishanpur while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi. His widow, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007 and served in parliament until 2009.[20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Jharkhand
አማርኛ: ጃርኸንድ
العربية: جهارخاند
অসমীয়া: ঝাড়খণ্ড
asturianu: Jharkhand
تۆرکجه: جارکند
বাংলা: ঝাড়খণ্ড
Bân-lâm-gú: Jharkhand
беларуская: Джхаркханд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Джгаркганд
भोजपुरी: झारखंड
български: Джаркханд
བོད་ཡིག: རྗར་ཁན་ཌི།
brezhoneg: Jharkhand
català: Jharkhand
čeština: Džhárkhand
Cymraeg: Jharkhand
dansk: Jharkhand
Deutsch: Jharkhand
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖަރްކަންދު
eesti: Jharkhand
Ελληνικά: Τζαρκάντ
español: Jharkhand
Esperanto: Ĝarkhando
euskara: Jharkhand
فارسی: جارکند
Fiji Hindi: Jharkhand
français: Jharkhand
Gaeilge: Jharkhand
ગુજરાતી: ઝારખંડ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Jharkhandd
한국어: 자르칸드 주
हिन्दी: झारखण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Dźarkand
hrvatski: Jharkhand
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ঝাড়খন্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Jharkhand
íslenska: Jharkhand
italiano: Jharkhand
עברית: ג'הרקאנד
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಝಾರ್ಖಂಡ್
Kapampangan: Jharkhand
ქართული: ჯარხანდი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: جھارکھنڈ
Kiswahili: Jharkhand
لۊری شومالی: جارکأند
Latina: Jharakhanda
latviešu: Džhārkhanda
lietuvių: Džharkhandas
magyar: Dzshárkhand
मैथिली: झारखण्ड
македонски: Џарканд
മലയാളം: ഝാർഖണ്ഡ്‌
मराठी: झारखंड
მარგალური: ჯარხანდი
Bahasa Melayu: Jharkhand
монгол: Жарканд
Nederlands: Jharkhand
नेपाली: झारखण्ड
नेपाल भाषा: झारखण्ड
нохчийн: Джаркханд
Nordfriisk: Jharkhand
norsk: Jharkhand
norsk nynorsk: Jharkhand
occitan: Jharkhand
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଝାଡ଼ଖଣ୍ଡ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਝਾਰਖੰਡ
پنجابی: جھاڑکھنڈ
پښتو: جارکنډ
polski: Jharkhand
português: Jharkhand
română: Jharkhand
русский: Джаркханд
संस्कृतम्: झारखण्डराज्यम्
Scots: Jharkhand
Simple English: Jharkhand
slovenčina: Džhárkhand
српски / srpski: Џарканд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jharkhand
suomi: Jharkhand
svenska: Jharkhand
Tagalog: Jharkhand
తెలుగు: జార్ఖండ్
тоҷикӣ: Ҷарханд
Türkçe: Carkhand
українська: Джхаркханд
vèneto: Jharkhand
Tiếng Việt: Jharkhand
文言: 賈坎德邦
Winaray: Jharkhand
ייִדיש: דזשארקהאנד
Yorùbá: Jharkhand
中文: 贾坎德邦
डोटेली: झारखण्ड