Jesus

Jesus
Cefalù Pantocrator retouched.jpg
Bornc. 4 BC[a]
Judea, Roman Empire[5]
Diedc. AD 30 / 33[b]
(aged 33–36)
Jerusalem, Judea, Roman Empire
Cause of deathCrucifixion[c]
Home townNazareth, Galilee[11]
Parent(s)
FamilyJames, Joseph (Joses), Judas (Jude), and Simon and unnamed sisters

Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.[13][14]

Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically,[g] although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus.[21][h][i] Jesus was a Galilean Jew[12] who was baptized by John the Baptist and subsequently began his own ministry, preaching his message orally[24] and often being referred to as "rabbi".[25] Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.[26][27] He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities,[28] turned over to the Roman government, and was subsequently crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect.[26] After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the early Church.[29]

The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January by some eastern churches) as a holiday known as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on Good Friday, and his resurrection is celebrated on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of the Lord"), and the alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birth date of Jesus.[30][j]

Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return.[32] Most Christians believe Jesus enables people to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead[33] either before or after their bodily resurrection,[34][35][36] an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology.[37] The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.

Jesus also figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements. In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.[38][39][40] Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the Son of God. The Quran states that Jesus himself never claimed divinity.[41] Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but believe that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, and was neither divine nor resurrected.[42]

Etymology

Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus

A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown.[43] Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth"[k] (e.g., Mark 10:47).[44] Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3),[45] "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55),[46] or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22).[47] In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45).[48]

The name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous).[49] The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע‎ (Yeshua), a variant of the earlier name יהושע‎ (Yehoshua), or in English, "Joshua".[50][51][52] The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus.[53] The 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament,[54] refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus (i.e. Ἰησοῦς).[55] The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahweh is salvation".[56]

Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ".[57] The word Christ was a title or office ("the Christ"), not a given name.[58][59] It derives from the Greek Χριστός (Christos),[49][60] a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh (משיח) meaning "anointed", and is usually transliterated into English as "Messiah".[61][62] In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture (see Leviticus 8:10–12 and Exodus 30:29).

Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" (meaning a follower of Christ) has been in use since the 1st century.[63]

Other Languages
Akan: Yesu
Alemannisch: Jesus Christus
አማርኛ: ኢየሱስ
Ænglisc: Iesus
العربية: يسوع
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܫܘܥ
armãneashti: Isa Hristo
arpetan: Jèsus Crist
asturianu: Xesús
Atikamekw: Cecoc
Avañe'ẽ: Hesu
Aymar aru: Jesus
azərbaycanca: İsa
bamanankan: Yesu Krista
বাংলা: যিশু
Bahasa Banjar: Yesus Kristus
Bân-lâm-gú: Iâ-so͘
Basa Banyumasan: Yesus Kristus
беларуская: Ісус Хрыстос
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ісус Хрыстос
भोजपुरी: ईसा मसीह
Bikol Central: Jesus
Bislama: Jisas Kraes
български: Иисус Христос
བོད་ཡིག: ཡེ་ཤུ།
bosanski: Isus
brezhoneg: Jezuz Nazaret
Cebuano: Jesus
čeština: Ježíš Kristus
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Jesus
Chi-Chewa: Yesu Kristu
chiShona: Yesu
chiTumbuka: Yesu Khristu
Cymraeg: Iesu
dansk: Jesus
davvisámegiella: Jesus
ދިވެހިބަސް: އީސާގެފާނު
dolnoserbski: Jezus Kristus
eesti: Jeesus
Ελληνικά: Ιησούς Χριστός
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Geṡü
Esperanto: Jesuo Kristo
estremeñu: Jesucristu
eʋegbe: Yesu
فارسی: عیسی
Fiji Hindi: Jesus
føroyskt: Jesus
français: Jésus-Christ
Fulfulde: Yéesu Kristaa
furlan: Jesus
Gaeilge: Íosa Críost
Gagauz: İisus
Gàidhlig: Ìosa Crìosd
贛語: 耶穌
ગુજરાતી: ઇસુ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जेजू क्रिस्त
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yâ-sû
한국어: 예수
Հայերեն: Հիսուս
हिन्दी: यीशु
hornjoserbsce: Jězus
hrvatski: Isus
Ilokano: Hesús
Bahasa Indonesia: Yesus
interlingua: Jesus Christo
Interlingue: Iesu
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐱᐅᓕᑦᓯᔨ
Iñupiak: Jeesus
isiXhosa: UYesu Kristu
íslenska: Jesús Kristur
italiano: Gesù
עברית: ישו
Basa Jawa: Yésus Kristus
kalaallisut: Jiisusi-Kristus
Kapampangan: Jesus
ქართული: იესო ქრისტე
қазақша: Иса Мәсих
kernowek: Yesu Krist
Kinyarwanda: Yezu Kirisitu
Kirundi: Yezu Kirisitu
Kiswahili: Yesu
Kongo: Yesu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jezi
kurdî: Îsa
Кыргызча: Иса
лакку: Эса идавс
لۊری شومالی: عیسی
latgaļu: Jezus Krystus
Latina: Iesus
latviešu: Jēzus Kristus
Lëtzebuergesch: Jesus vun Nazaret
lietuvių: Jėzus Kristus
Ligure: Gêxù
Limburgs: Zjezus Christus
lingála: Yésu
Livvinkarjala: Iisus
la .lojban.: iesus
Luganda: Jesu Kristo
magyar: Jézus
македонски: Исус Христос
Malagasy: Jesosy
മലയാളം: യേശു
Malti: Ġesù
Māori: Ihu Karaiti
მარგალური: იოსე ქირსე
مصرى: يسوع
مازِرونی: عیسی
Bahasa Melayu: Jesus Christ
Baso Minangkabau: Yesus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ià-sŭ
Mirandés: Jasus
монгол: Есүс Христ
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ခရစ်တော်၊ ယေရှု
Nāhuatl: Jesucristo
Dorerin Naoero: Jesu Kristo
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jisu Karisito
Nedersaksies: Jezus Christus
Napulitano: Giesù Cristo
Nordfriisk: Jiises Krast
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jesus
norsk nynorsk: Jesus
Nouormand: Jésus-Chrît
Novial: Jesu Kristo
олык марий: Исус Христос
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଯୀଶୁ
Oromoo: Yesuus
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Iso Masih
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਈਸਾ ਮਸੀਹ
Pälzisch: Jesus Christus
پنجابی: یسوع
Papiamentu: Hesus
پښتو: عيسی
Перем Коми: Иисус Христос
Piemontèis: Gesù ëd Nàsaret
Tok Pisin: Jisas
Plattdüütsch: Jesus Christus
português: Jesus
qırımtatarca: İsa
reo tahiti: Iesu Mesia
Ripoarisch: Jesus Christus
rumantsch: Jesus da Nazaret
Runa Simi: Hisuw
русиньскый: Ісус Хрістос
саха тыла: Иисус Христос
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱡᱤᱥᱩ
Gagana Samoa: Iesu Keriso
संस्कृतम्: ईसु क्रिस्त
sardu: Gesùs
Seeltersk: Jesus Kristus
Sesotho sa Leboa: Jesu
shqip: Jezusi
sicilianu: Gesù Cristu
Simple English: Jesus
سنڌي: عيسيٰ
slovenčina: Ježiš Kristus
slovenščina: Jezus Kristus
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їисъ Хрїстъ
ślůnski: Jezus Kristus
Soomaaliga: Ciise
کوردی: یەسووع
српски / srpski: Исус
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Isus
suomi: Jeesus
svenska: Jesus
Tagalog: Hesus
தமிழ்: இயேசு
Taqbaylit: Ɛisa
татарча/tatarça: Ğäysä päyğämbär
తెలుగు: యేసు
тоҷикӣ: Исои Масеҳ
lea faka-Tonga: Sīsū Kalaisi
Türkçe: İsa
Türkmençe: Isa Pygamber
українська: Ісус Христос
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسا ئەلەيھىسسالام
Vahcuengh: Yesu
vèneto: Jesu
vepsän kel’: Iisus Hristos
Tiếng Việt: Giê-su
Võro: Jeesus
文言: 耶穌
West-Vlams: Jezus van Nazareth
Winaray: Jesucristo
吴语: 耶稣
ייִדיש: יעזוס
Yorùbá: Jésù
粵語: 耶穌
Zazaki: İsa
žemaitėška: Jiezos Krėstos
中文: 耶稣
Lingua Franca Nova: Jesus Cristo