Jefferson County was created in 1827. It was named for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States of America, who had died the year before the county's establishment.
Forts of Jefferson County
- Fort Roger Jones (1839), Aucilla (Ocilla Ferry), north of US 90.
- Fort Noel (1839–1842), south of Lamont on the Aucilla River, six miles (10 km) northwest of Fort Pleasant in Taylor County. Also known as Fort Number Three (M).
- Camp Carter (1838), near Waukeenah.
- Fort Welaunee (1838), a settlers' fort on the Welaunee Plantation near Wacissa. Fort Gamble (1839–1843) was later established here.
- Fort Aucilla (1843), two miles (3 km) south-east of Fort Gamble, southwest of Lamont, between the Aucilla and Wacissa Rivers. Also spelled Ocilla.
- Fort Wacissa (1838), a settlers' fort located south of Wacissa on the Wacissa River, west of Cabbage Grove.