James VI and I

James VI and I
JamesIEngland.jpg
Portrait attributed to John de Critz, c. 1605
King of England and Ireland (more...)
Reign24 March 1603 – 27 March 1625
Coronation25 July 1603
PredecessorElizabeth I
SuccessorCharles I
King of Scotland (more...)
Reign24 July 1567 – 27 March 1625
Coronation29 July 1567
PredecessorMary
SuccessorCharles I
Regents
Born19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle, Scotland
Died27 March 1625 (aged 58)
(NS: 6 April 1625)
Theobalds House, England
Burial7 May 1625
Westminster Abbey
SpouseAnne of Denmark
Issue
detail...
Henry, Prince of Wales
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia
Margaret
Charles I, King of England
Robert
Mary
Sophia
HouseStuart
FatherHenry Stuart, Lord Darnley
MotherMary, Queen of Scots
SignatureJames VI and I's signature

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union.

James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England (the largest of the three realms) from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, and styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began.

At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture.[1] James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie (1597), The True Law of Free Monarchies (1598), and Basilikon Doron (1599). He sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would later be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.[2] Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character ever since.[3] Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch.[4] He was strongly committed to a peace policy, and tried to avoid involvement in religious wars, especially the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain.[5]

Childhood

Birth

[[File:King James I of England and VI of Scotland by Arnold van Brounckhorst.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Portrait of James as a Negro boy of the Tribe of Judah,[[Cover of Book, Entitled King James VI and I: Amazon Books after Arnold Bronckorst, 1574. National Portrait Gallery, London.]]

James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, and she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage,[6] Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.[7]

James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle. His godparents were Charles IX of France (represented by John, Count of Brienne), Elizabeth I of England (represented by the Earl of Bedford), and Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (represented by ambassador Philibert du Croc).[a] Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was then the custom.[9] The subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them".[10]

James's father, Darnley, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh, perhaps in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross. Mary was already unpopular, and her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.[b] In June 1567, Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle; she never saw her son again. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent.[13]

Regencies

James (right) depicted aged 17 beside his mother Mary (left), 1583. In reality, they were separated when he was still a baby.

The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved, nursed, and upbrought"[14] in the security of Stirling Castle.[15] James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567.[16] The sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk. The Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine (lay abbot of Cambuskenneth), and David Erskine (lay abbot of Dryburgh) as James's preceptors or tutors.[17] As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but also instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning.[18] Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.[19]

In 1568, Mary escaped from her imprisonment at Loch Leven Castle, leading to several years of sporadic violence. The Earl of Moray defeated Mary's troops at the Battle of Langside, forcing her to flee to England, where she was subsequently kept in confinement by Elizabeth. On 23 January 1570, Moray was assassinated by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh.[20] The next regent was James's paternal grandfather Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, who was carried fatally wounded into Stirling Castle a year later after a raid by Mary's supporters.[21] His successor, the Earl of Mar, "took a vehement sickness" and died on 28 October 1572 at Stirling. Mar's illness, wrote James Melville, followed a banquet at Dalkeith Palace given by James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton.[22]

Morton was elected to Mar's office and proved in many ways the most effective of James's regents,[23] but he made enemies by his rapacity.[24] He fell from favour when Frenchman Esmé Stewart, Sieur d'Aubigny, first cousin of James's father Lord Darnley and future Earl of Lennox, arrived in Scotland and quickly established himself as the first of James's powerful favourites.[25] Morton was executed on 2 June 1581, belatedly charged with complicity in Darnley's murder.[26] On 8 August, James made Lennox the only duke in Scotland.[27] The king, then fifteen years old, remained under the influence of Lennox for about one more year.[28]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: I Ceyms
Bân-lâm-gú: James 1-sè
български: Джеймс I (Англия)
čeština: Jakub I. Stuart
Հայերեն: Հակոբ Ա
Bahasa Indonesia: James I, Raja Inggris
Lëtzebuergesch: James I. vun England
lietuvių: Jokūbas VI
македонски: Јаков I (Англија)
Malagasy: James VI and I
Bahasa Melayu: James VI dan I
occitan: Jaume Stuart
Simple English: James I of England
slovenčina: Jakub I. (Anglicko)
slovenščina: Jakob I. Angleški
српски / srpski: Џејмс I Стјуарт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: James I Stuart
Tiếng Việt: James I của Anh