Jakarta

Jakarta
Special Capital Region
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta
From top, left to right: Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral
Flag of Jakarta
Flag
Coat of arms of Jakarta
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The Big Durian,[1][2] J-Town[3]
Motto(s): Jaya Raya (Sanskrit)
(meaning: Victorious and Great)
Jakarta is located in Java
Jakarta
Jakarta
Location in Java and Indonesia
Jakarta is located in Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6°12′S 106°49′E / -6.200; 106.817)
HDI rank1st (2016)
GDP PPP (2016)Increase$438.7 billion[7]
Policejakarta.go.id

Jakarta (ə/; Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta]), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

It is located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java. it is the centre of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia. It hosted a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014.[6][8] The Greater Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, which is known as Jabodetabek (an acronym of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi). It is the world's second largest urban agglomeration (after Tokyo) with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010.[9] Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity.[10]Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures.[11]

Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, when it was known as Batavia. Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, but is commonly referred to as a city. The Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.

Jakarta is an alpha world city[12] and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy.[13] Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, and corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city. As of 2017, the city is home for six Forbes Global 2000, two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies .[14][15][16]In 2014, the city's GDP was estimated at US$321.3 billion[17] and economic growth was ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities.[18] Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing.[19]

Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion, poverty and inequality and flooding.[20] Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding.[21]

History

Names and etymology

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.

Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements:

  • Sunda Kelapa (397–1527),
  • Jayakarta (1527–1619),
  • Batavia (1619–1942),
  • Djakarta (1942–1945),
  • Jakarta (1945–present).

Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta (Devanagari: जयकृत) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit language; जय jaya (victorious)[22] and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired),[23] thus Jayakarta translates as "victorious deed", "complete act" or "complete victory" which literally, Jakarta means the "victorious city". It was named after troops of Fatahillah successfully defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527.[24] Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa".

Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region,[1] as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York City (the Big Apple).[25] In the colonial era, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout.[26] After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas.[27]

Pre-colonial era

The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD.[28] The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia.[29] The area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century. The Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.[30] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java (Sunda).[citation needed] The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles.[31] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa (Sundanese: ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮜᮕ) and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom.

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.[32] The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java.[33] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta,[33] and became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.[34] Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[35]

Colonial era

Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman c. 1656
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. His army and the English, however, were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen. The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced them to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia.

Commercial opportunities in the city attracted native and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.[36] At the beginning of the 19th century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number which changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded, fabrics, especially imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.[37]

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 forced residents to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913[38] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[36] By 1930, Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,[39] including 37,067 Europeans.[40] After World War II, the city of Batavia was renamed "Jakarta" (a short form of Jayakarta) by nationalists, after achieving independence in 1949.[41]

On 5 March 1942, the Japanese wrested Batavia from Dutch control and the city was named Jakarta (Jakarta Special City (ジャカルタ特別市, Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi), in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognized until full Indonesian independence was achieved on 27 December 1949 and Jakarta was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

Independence era

Monas which stands in the centre of Merdeka square, commemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence.

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. Indonesian nationalists declared independence on 17 August 1945[42] and the government of Jakarta City was changed into the Jakarta National Administration in the following month.

In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta again became the national capital.[36] Sukarno, envisaging Jakarta as a great international city, instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[43][44] Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese,[45] marking the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.

This first government was led by a mayor until the end of 1960, when the office was changed to that of a governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Soediro, until he was replaced by Soemarno Sosroatmodjo as governor. Based on Act No. 5 of 1974 relating to the Fundamentals of Regional Government, Jakarta was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia and one of Indonesia's then 26 provinces.[46]

Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta's main avenue and business district

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital region" (Daerah Khusus Ibukota), with status equivalent to that of a province.[47] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as governor from the mid-1960s commencement of the "New Order" until 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built hospitals and a large number of schools. He cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family[48][49]—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.[50] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that transformed the face of the city.[51]

The boom ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest and political manoeuvring. After 32 years in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak when 4 students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings, forcing Suharto to resign.[52] Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.[53] Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[54] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005,[36] with another bombing in 2009.[55]

In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to choose a governor as part of a nationwide decentralisation program that allows direct local elections in several areas.[56] Previously, governors were elected by the members of Jakarta Council (DPRD).

Other Languages
Acèh: Jakarta
адыгабзэ: Джакартэ
Afrikaans: Djakarta
Alemannisch: Jakarta
አማርኛ: ጃካርታ
العربية: جاكرتا
aragonés: Jakarta
অসমীয়া: জাকাৰ্টা
asturianu: Xakarta
azərbaycanca: Cakarta
تۆرکجه: جاکارتا
bamanankan: Jakarta
বাংলা: জাকার্তা
Bân-lâm-gú: Jakarta
башҡортса: Джакарта
беларуская: Джакарта
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Джакарта
भोजपुरी: जकार्ता
български: Джакарта
བོད་ཡིག: ཊ་ཁར་ཏ།
bosanski: Jakarta
brezhoneg: Jakarta
буряад: Джакарта
català: Jakarta
čeština: Jakarta
Chi-Chewa: Jakarta
chiShona: Jakarta
Cymraeg: Jakarta
dansk: Jakarta
Deutsch: Jakarta
dolnoserbski: Jakarta
डोटेली: जाकार्ता
eesti: Jakarta
Ελληνικά: Τζακάρτα
español: Yakarta
Esperanto: Ĝakarto
estremeñu: Yakarta
euskara: Jakarta
فارسی: جاکارتا
Fiji Hindi: Jakarta
føroyskt: Jakarta
français: Jakarta
Frysk: Djakarta
Gaeilge: Iacárta
Gàidhlig: Jakarta
galego: Iacarta
ГӀалгӀай: Джакарта
ગુજરાતી: જાકાર્તા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Jakarta
한국어: 자카르타
Hausa: Jakarta
հայերեն: Ջակարտա
हिन्दी: जकार्ता
hornjoserbsce: Jakarta
hrvatski: Jakarta
Bahasa Hulontalo: DKI Jakarta
Ido: Jakarta
Ilokano: Jakarta
interlingua: Jakarta
Interlingue: Jakarta
íslenska: Djakarta
italiano: Giacarta
עברית: ג'קרטה
Basa Jawa: Jakarta
Kabɩyɛ: Jakarita
kalaallisut: Jakarta
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಕಾರ್ತ
ქართული: ჯაკარტა
қазақша: Джакарта
kernowek: Jakarta
Kinyarwanda: Jakarta
Kiswahili: Jakarta
Kongo: Jakarta
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jakarta
kurdî: Cakarta
Кыргызча: Жакарта
Ladino: Djakarta
لۊری شومالی: آستون جاکارتا
Latina: Jakarta
latviešu: Džakarta
Lëtzebuergesch: Jakarta
lietuvių: Džakarta
Limburgs: Jakarta
Livvinkarjala: Džakarta
lumbaart: Giacarta
magyar: Jakarta
मैथिली: जकार्ता
македонски: Џакарта
Malagasy: Jakarta
മലയാളം: ജക്കാർത്ത
Māori: Jakarta
मराठी: जकार्ता
მარგალური: ჯაკარტა
مصرى: جاكارتا
مازِرونی: جاکارتا
Bahasa Melayu: Jakarta
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Jakarta
Mirandés: Jacarta
монгол: Жакарта
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျကာတာမြို့
Nāhuatl: Yakarta
Dorerin Naoero: Jakarta
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jakarta
Nederlands: Jakarta
नेपाली: जाकार्ता
नेपाल भाषा: जकार्ता
日本語: ジャカルタ
нохчийн: Джакарта
Nordfriisk: Jakarta
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jakarta
norsk: Jakarta
norsk nynorsk: Jakarta
occitan: Jakarta
олык марий: Джакарта
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାକର୍ତା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Jakarta
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਕਾਰਤਾ
پنجابی: جکارتہ
Papiamentu: Jakarta
پښتو: جکارتا
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ហ្សាកាតា
Piemontèis: Giacarta
polski: Dżakarta
português: Jacarta
Qaraqalpaqsha: Jakarta
română: Jakarta
Runa Simi: Jakarta
русиньскый: Джакарта
русский: Джакарта
саха тыла: Дьакаарта
संस्कृतम्: तरुमा नगर
Scots: Jakarta
shqip: Xhakarta
sicilianu: Giacarta
Simple English: Jakarta
slovenčina: Jakarta
slovenščina: Džakarta
ślůnski: Dżakarta
کوردی: جاکارتا
Sranantongo: Jakarta
српски / srpski: Џакарта
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Džakarta
Basa Sunda: Jakarta
suomi: Jakarta
svenska: Jakarta
Tagalog: Jakarta
tarandíne: Giacarta
татарча/tatarça: Cakarta
తెలుగు: జకార్తా
tetun: Jakarta
тоҷикӣ: Ҷакарта
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏤᏙ
Türkçe: Cakarta
Türkmençe: Jakarta
Twi: Gyakata
українська: Джакарта
اردو: جکارتا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جاكارتا
Vahcuengh: Jakarta
vèneto: Xacarta
vepsän kel’: Džakart
Tiếng Việt: Jakarta
Volapük: Jakarta
文言: 雅加達
Winaray: Jakarta
吴语: 雅加達
ייִדיש: דזשאקארטא
Yorùbá: Jakarta
粵語: 耶加達
žemaitėška: Džakarta
中文: 雅加达