Jakarta

Jakarta
Special Capital Region
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota (DKI) Jakarta
From top, left to right: Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral
Coat of arms of Jakarta
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The Big Durian, [1] [2] J-Town [3]
Motto(s): Jaya Raya ( Sanskrit)
(meaning: Victorious and Great)
Jakarta is located in Java
Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is located in Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta
Location in Java and Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6°12′S 106°49′E / -6.200; 106.817
Country   Indonesia
Established 397 AD [4]:116
As Jayakarta 22 June 1527 [4]:154
As Batavia 4 March 1621 [5]
As Jakarta 8 August 1942 [5]
Government
 • Type Special administrative area
 •  Governor Anies Baswedan
 • Deputy Governor Sandiaga Uno
Area
 •  Special Capital Region 661.5 km2 (255.4 sq mi)
 • Metro 6,392 km2 (2,468 sq mi)
Area rank 33rd
Elevation 8 m (26 ft)
Population (2010 census) [6]
 •  Special Capital Region 9,607,787
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 14,464/km2 (37,460/sq mi)
 •  Metro 30,214,303
 • Metro density 4,383/km2 (11,350/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Jakartan, Indonesian: warga Jakarta, orang Jakarta
Time zone Indonesia Western Time ( UTC+7)
Postal Code 1xxx0
Area code (+62) 21
Vehicle registration B
HDI Increase 0.792 (High)
HDI rank 1st (2016)
GDP PPP (2016) Increase$438.7 billion [7]
Police Polda Metro Jaya
Website jakarta.go.id

Jakarta ( ə/, Indonesian pronunciation:  [dʒaˈkarta]), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital of Indonesia, which was formerly known as Batavia during Dutch East Indies and Sunda Kelapa during Sunda Kingdom. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the center of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. [8] [9] Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, which is known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi), is the second largest urban agglomeration and 2nd largest city area in the world after Tokyo, with a population of 30,214,303 inhabitants as of 2010 census. [10] Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of many communities and cultures. [11] Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, yet is commonly referred to as a city. The Jakarta provincial government administers five administrative cities and one administrative regency.

Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, which was known as Batavia at that time. The city is currently the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat as well as important financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations. As of 2017, six of Forbes Global 2000 companies have headquarters in the city. [12] The city is also home for two Fortune 500 companies in 2016. [13]

Jakarta is listed as an Alpha Global City in the 2016 report of Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). [14] Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, the GDP of Jakarta was estimated at US$321.3 billion [15] and economic growth was ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities. [16] Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing. [17]

Major challenges for Jakarta among others are rapid urban growth that led to overpopulation and ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion, poverty and inequality, and flooding. [18] The Indonesian capital, is sinking up to 17cm (6.7 inches) per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city prone to flooding. [19]

History

Names and etymology

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.

Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their respective names:

  • Sunda Kelapa (397–1527),
  • Jayakarta (1527–1619),
  • Batavia (1619–1949),
  • Djakarta (1949–1972), and
  • Jakarta (1972–present).

Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta. The origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language; जय jaya (victorious) [20] and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired), [21] thus "Jayakarta" translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory".

Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, [1] as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York (the Big Apple). [22] In the colonial era, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout. [23] After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, many green spaces and villas. [24]

Pre-colonial era

The 5th century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. [25] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java ( Sunda). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles. [26] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa ( Sundanese: ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮜᮕ) and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom.

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices. [27] The Hindu Kingdom of Sunda made an alliance treaty with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of the Islamic Sultanate of Demak from central Java. [28] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, [28] and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. [29]

Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615. [30]

Colonial era

Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman c. 1656
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayawikarta's army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia. Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls. [31] At the beginning of the nineteenth century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number which changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded, fabrics, especially imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities. [32]

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 caused more people to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913, [33] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area. [31] By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants, [34] including 37,067 Europeans. [35]

After World War II, the city of Batavia was renamed "Jakarta" (a short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after achieving independence from the Dutch in 1949. [36]

Independence era

Monas which stands in the centre of Merdeka square, commemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence.

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital. [31] Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture. [37] [38] Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard ( Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half-a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese, [39] and the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.

Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta's main avenue and business district

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital region" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a province. [40] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-1960s commencement of the " New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family [41] [42]—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty. [43] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city. [44]

The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest, and political manoeuvring. After 32 years in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings. [45] Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians. [46] Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia. [47] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005, [31] with another bombing in 2009. [48]

Other Languages
Acèh: Jakarta
адыгабзэ: Джакартэ
Afrikaans: Djakarta
Alemannisch: Jakarta
አማርኛ: ጃካርታ
العربية: جاكرتا
aragonés: Jakarta
অসমীয়া: জাকাৰ্টা
asturianu: Xakarta
azərbaycanca: Cakarta
تۆرکجه: جاکارتا
bamanankan: Jakarta
বাংলা: জাকার্তা
Bân-lâm-gú: Jakarta
башҡортса: Джакарта
беларуская: Джакарта
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Джакарта
भोजपुरी: जकार्ता
български: Джакарта
བོད་ཡིག: ཊ་ཁར་ཏ།
bosanski: Jakarta
brezhoneg: Jakarta
буряад: Джакарта
català: Jakarta
čeština: Jakarta
Chi-Chewa: Jakarta
chiShona: Jakarta
Cymraeg: Jakarta
dansk: Jakarta
Deutsch: Jakarta
dolnoserbski: Jakarta
eesti: Jakarta
Ελληνικά: Τζακάρτα
español: Yakarta
Esperanto: Ĝakarto
estremeñu: Yakarta
euskara: Jakarta
فارسی: جاکارتا
Fiji Hindi: Jakarta
føroyskt: Jakarta
français: Jakarta
Frysk: Jakarta
Gaeilge: Iacárta
Gàidhlig: Jakarta
galego: Iacarta
ગુજરાતી: જાકાર્તા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Jakarta
한국어: 자카르타
Hausa: Jakarta
Հայերեն: Ջակարտա
हिन्दी: जकार्ता
hornjoserbsce: Jakarta
hrvatski: Jakarta
Ido: Jakarta
Ilokano: Jakarta
interlingua: Jakarta
Interlingue: Jakarta
íslenska: Djakarta
italiano: Giacarta
עברית: ג'קרטה
Basa Jawa: Jakarta
kalaallisut: Jakarta
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಕಾರ್ತ
ქართული: ჯაკარტა
қазақша: Джакарта
kernowek: Jakarta
Kinyarwanda: Jakarta
Kiswahili: Jakarta
Kongo: Jakarta
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jakarta
Kurdî: Cakarta
Кыргызча: Жакарта
Ladino: Djakarta
لۊری شومالی: آستون جاکارتا
Latina: Jakarta
latviešu: Džakarta
Lëtzebuergesch: Jakarta
lietuvių: Džakarta
Limburgs: Jakarta
lumbaart: Giacarta
magyar: Jakarta
македонски: Џакарта
Malagasy: Jakarta
മലയാളം: ജക്കാർത്ത
Māori: Jakarta
मराठी: जकार्ता
მარგალური: ჯაკარტა
مصرى: جاكارتا
مازِرونی: جاکارتا
Bahasa Melayu: Jakarta
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Jakarta
Mirandés: Jacarta
монгол: Жакарта
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျကာတာမြို့
Nāhuatl: Yakarta
Dorerin Naoero: Jakarta
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jakarta
Nederlands: Jakarta
नेपाली: जाकार्ता
नेपाल भाषा: जकार्ता
日本語: ジャカルタ
нохчийн: Джакарта
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jakarta
norsk: Jakarta
norsk nynorsk: Jakarta
occitan: Jakarta
олык марий: Джакарта
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାକର୍ତା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Jakarta
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਕਾਰਤਾ
پنجابی: جکارتہ
Papiamentu: Jakarta
پښتو: جکارتا
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ហ្សាកាតា
Piemontèis: Giacarta
polski: Dżakarta
português: Jacarta
Qaraqalpaqsha: Jakarta
română: Jakarta
Runa Simi: Jakarta
русиньскый: Джакарта
русский: Джакарта
саха тыла: Дьакаарта
संस्कृतम्: तरुमा नगर
Scots: Jakarta
shqip: Xhakarta
sicilianu: Giacarta
Simple English: Jakarta
slovenčina: Jakarta
slovenščina: Džakarta
ślůnski: Dżakarta
کوردی: جاکارتا
Sranantongo: Jakarta
српски / srpski: Џакарта
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Džakarta
Basa Sunda: Jakarta
suomi: Jakarta
svenska: Jakarta
Tagalog: Jakarta
tarandíne: Giacarta
татарча/tatarça: Cakarta
తెలుగు: జకార్తా
tetun: Jakarta
тоҷикӣ: Ҷакарта
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏤᏙ
Türkçe: Cakarta
Türkmençe: Jakarta
Twi: Jakarta
українська: Джакарта
اردو: جکارتا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جاكارتا
Vahcuengh: Yajgyadaz
vèneto: Xacarta
vepsän kel’: Džakart
Tiếng Việt: Jakarta
Volapük: Jakarta
文言: 雅加達
Winaray: Jakarta
吴语: 雅加達
ייִדיש: דזשאקארטא
Yorùbá: Jakarta
粵語: 耶加達
žemaitėška: Džakarta
中文: 雅加达
डोटेली: जाकार्ता
Kabɩyɛ: Jakarita