The 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII, then King of England, Ireland and Scotland, with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, ruling as joint monarchs. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, leaving their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant succession, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the English and Irish thrones, and of Great Britain after the 1707 Acts of Union. When Anne became the last Stuart monarch in 1702, her successor was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover, who died two months before Anne in August 1714. Her son became George I, giving the pro-Hanoverian Whigs control of the government for the next 30 years.
, chief minister of France from 1723 to 1743, who saw the Jacobites as an ineffective weapon for dealing with British power
Louis XIV had been a strong supporter of the Stuarts but after his death in 1715, French priorities were peace and rebuilding their economy. The 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced the Stuarts to leave France and they were invited to settle in Rome by Pope Benedict XIV. The Duke of Ormond, responsible for planning the 1719 Rising, concluded it had damaged the cause, writing that "it bid fair to ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts."
While the birth of his sons Charles and Henry kept the Stuarts in the public eye, James' devout personal Catholicism made him less attractive to his Protestant supporters. By 1737, he was reported as "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration". In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see British commercial power as a threat to the traditional advantage provided by the revenue-raising powers of the centralised French state. For France, an ongoing low-level civil war was a far more cost-effective way of absorbing British resources than an expensive and risky Stuart restoration. While the combination of clan structure, remoteness and terrain made Scotland the best place to launch an insurgency, but it could be potentially devastating for the local populace, a fact recognised by many Jacobites, including Charles.[a] 
The 1737 Porteous Riots
in Edinburgh reflected opposition to the loss of political power following Union
The 1725 malt tax riots in Glasgow and the 1737 Porteous riots in Edinburgh showed a lack of sensitivity by the London government. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited was posted to Flanders; despite warnings this was contrary to an understanding that their service was restricted to Scotland, the move went ahead and led to a mutiny.
Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who then did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government. Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne.
By 1743, hostilities between Britain and France seemed only a matter of time, as French statesmen generally agreed British commercial power was a threat that had to be dealt with. However, the majority of Louis XV's ministers did not consider the Stuarts to be a useful tool in that process, exceptions being D'Argenson and Cardinal Tencin. When Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, died in January 1743, Louis assumed control of government and D'Argenson was appointed foreign minister in November 1744.