Jack Ruby

Jack Ruby
Jack Ruby-1.jpg
Ruby c. 1963
Jacob Leon Rubenstein

(1911-04-25)April 25, 1911
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedJanuary 3, 1967(1967-01-03) (aged 55)
Dallas, Texas, U.S.
Resting placeWestlawn Cemetery, Norridge, Illinois, U.S.
41°57′29″N 87°49′37″W / 41°57′29″N 87°49′37″W / 41.958110; -87.826853
OccupationNightclub operator
Criminal chargeMurder of Lee Harvey Oswald
Criminal penaltyDeath (overturned)

Jack Leon Ruby (born Jacob Leon Rubenstein; April 25, 1911[1] – January 3, 1967) was a Dallas, Texas nightclub owner. He fatally shot Lee Harvey Oswald on November 24, 1963, while Oswald was in police custody after being charged with assassinating United States President John F. Kennedy and murdering Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit about an hour later. A Dallas jury found him guilty of murdering Oswald, and he was sentenced to death. Ruby's conviction was later appealed, and he was granted a new trial. However, as the date for his new trial was being set,[2] Ruby became ill in prison and died of a pulmonary embolism from lung cancer on January 3, 1967.[3][4]

In September 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Ruby acted alone in killing Oswald.[5] Various groups believed Ruby was involved with major figures in organized crime and that he killed Oswald as part of an overall plot surrounding the assassination of Kennedy.

Childhood and early life

Jack Ruby was born Jacob Leon Rubenstein,[6] on April 25, 1911, in the Maxwell Street area of Chicago as the son of Joseph Rubenstein and Fannie Turek Rutkowski (or Rokowsky), both Polish-born Orthodox Jews from Sokołów.

Ruby was the fifth of his parents' 10 surviving children. While he was growing up, his parents were often violent towards each other and regularly temporarily separated; Ruby's mother was eventually committed to a mental hospital.[7] His troubled childhood and adolescence was marked by juvenile delinquency with time being spent in foster homes. At age 11 in 1922, he was arrested for truancy. Ruby eventually skipped school enough times that he spent time at the Institute for Juvenile Research. Still a young man, he sold horse-racing tip sheets and various novelties, then acted as a business agent for a local refuse collectors union that later became part of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT).[8]

From his early childhood, Ruby was nicknamed "Sparky" by those who knew him.[9] His sister, Eva Grant, said that he acquired the nickname because he resembled a slow-moving horse named "Spark Plug" or "Sparky" in the contemporary comic strip Barney Google. ("Spark Plug" debuted as a character in the strip in 1922, when Ruby was 11.)[9] Other accounts say that the name was directly connected with his quick temper.[9] In either event, Grant stated that Ruby didn't like the nickname Sparky and was quick to fight anyone who called him that.[9]

In the 1940s, Ruby frequented race tracks in Illinois and California. He was drafted in 1943 and served in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II, working as an aircraft mechanic at U.S. bases until 1946. He had an honorable record and was promoted to Private First Class. Upon discharge, in 1946, Ruby returned to Chicago.[7]

In 1947, Ruby moved to Dallas where he and his brothers soon afterward shortened their surnames from Rubenstein to Ruby. The stated reason for this was that the name "Rubenstein" was too long and that he was "well known" as Jack Ruby.[10] Ruby later went on to manage various nightclubs, strip clubs, and dance halls. He developed close ties to many Dallas Police officers who frequented his nightclubs, where he provided them with free liquor, prostitutes and other favors.[11]

Ruby never married anyone; he had no children. [12]

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Jack Ruby
العربية: جاك روبي
azərbaycanca: Cek Rubi
български: Джак Руби
català: Jack Ruby
čeština: Jacob Rubinstein
dansk: Jack Ruby
Deutsch: Jack Ruby
eesti: Jack Ruby
Ελληνικά: Τζακ Ρούμπι
español: Jack Ruby
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فارسی: جک روبی
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한국어: 잭 루비
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italiano: Jack Ruby
עברית: ג'ק רובי
latviešu: Džeks Rūbijs
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русский: Руби, Джек
Simple English: Jack Ruby
српски / srpski: Џек Руби
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jack Ruby
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українська: Джек Рубі
اردو: جیک روبی
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