Iva Toguri D'Aquino

Iva Toguri D'Aquino
戸栗郁子 アイバ
JOAK microphone & Tokyo Rose, National Museum of American History.jpg
JOAK microphone & Iva Toguri
BornIva Toguri
(1916-07-04)July 4, 1916
Los Angeles, California
DiedSeptember 26, 2006(2006-09-26) (aged 90)
Chicago, Illinois
Resting placeMontrose Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois
NationalityAmerican
Other namesTokyo Rose
Orphan Ann
Education
Occupationtypist and broadcaster, merchant
EmployerJapanese central government's news agency and Radio Tokyo
Known forAnnouncing propaganda on Japanese radio during World War II
Spouse(s)Felipe D'Aquino
(m. 1945–1980; divorced)

Iva Ikuko Toguri D'Aquino (July 4, 1916 – September 26, 2006) was an American who participated in English-language radio broadcasts transmitted by Radio Tokyo to Allied soldiers in the South Pacific during World War II on The Zero Hour radio show. Toguri called herself "Orphan Ann," but she quickly became identified with the name "Tokyo Rose," a name that was coined by Allied soldiers and that predated her broadcasts. After the Japanese defeat, Toguri was detained for a year by the United States military before being released for lack of evidence. Department of Justice officials agreed that her broadcasts were "innocuous," but when Toguri tried to return to the US a popular uproar ensued, prompting the Federal Bureau of Investigation to renew its investigation of Toguri's wartime activities. She was subsequently charged by the United States Attorney's Office with eight counts of treason. Her 1949 trial resulted in a conviction on one count, making her the seventh American to be convicted on that charge, for which she spent more than six years out of a ten-year sentence in prison. Journalistic and governmental investigators years later pieced together the history of irregularities with the indictment, trial, and conviction, including confessions from key witnesses that they had perjured themselves at the various stages of their testimonies. Toguri received a pardon in 1977 from U.S. President Gerald Ford.

Early life

Iva Ikuko Toguri (戸栗郁子 アイバ, Toguri Ikuko Aiba) was born in Los Angeles, a daughter of Japanese immigrants.[1]:40[2] Her father, Jun Toguri, had come to the U.S. in 1899, and her mother, Fumi, in 1913.[1]:41 Iva was a Girl Scout,[1]:43 and was raised as a Christian.[1]:42 She began grammar schools in Mexico and San Diego before returning with her family to complete her education in Los Angeles, where she also attended high school.[1]:41 Toguri graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1940 with a degree in zoology.[2][3] In 1940, she registered to vote as a Republican[1]:44

On July 5, 1941, Toguri sailed for Japan from the San Pedro, Los Angeles area, to visit an ailing relative.[2][1]:46 The U.S. State Department issued her a Certificate of Identification; she did not have a passport.[1]:50[4] In August, Toguri applied to the U.S. Vice Consul in Japan for a passport, stating she wished to return to her home in the U.S.[1]:53 Her request was forwarded to the State Department, but following the attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941), the State Department refused to certify her citizenship in 1942.[1]:57