Italy

Italian Republic
Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)
Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian)
"The Song of the Italians"
EU-Italy (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Italy.svg
Location of  Italy  (dark green)

– in Europe  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Rome
41°54′N 12°29′E / 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900; 12.483
Official languagesItalian
Native languagessee full list
Ethnic groups (2017)[1]
Religion (2017)[2]
DemonymItalian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Sergio Mattarella
Giuseppe Conte
Elisabetta Casellati
Roberto Fico
LegislatureParliament
Senate of the Republic
Chamber of Deputies
Formation
17 March 1861
• Republic
2 June 1946
• Current constitution adopted
1 January 1948
• Foundation of the EEC (now European Union)
1 January 1958
Area
• Total
301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
2.4
Population
• 2017 estimate
60,483,973 Increase[3] (23rd)
• Density
201.3/km2 (521.4/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.399 trillion [4] (12th)
• Per capita
$39,499[4] (32nd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.181 trillion[5] (8th)
• Per capita
$35,913[4] (25th)
Gini (2016)33.1[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.880[7]
very high · 28th
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+39c
ISO 3166 codeIT
Internet TLD.itd
  1. German is co-official in South Tyrol; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste and the province of Gorizia; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas; Sardinian is co-official in Sardinia.[8]
  2. Before 2002, the Italian lira. The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc.[9]
  3. To call Campione d'Italia, it is necessary to use the Swiss code +41.
  4. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (About this sound listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubblika itaˈljaːna]),[10][11][12][13] is a country in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in southern Europe.

Due to its central geographic location in Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples dispersed throughout the Italian Peninsula and insular Italy, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks established settlements in the south of Italy, with Etruscans and Celts inhabiting the centre and the north of Italy respectively. The Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated its neighbours. In the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural, political and religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script.

During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics, mainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.[14] These mostly independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe; however, part of central Italy was under the control of the theocratic Papal States, while Southern Italy remained largely feudal until the 19th century, partially as a result of a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin and Spanish conquests of the region.[15]

The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Galileo and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.[15][16][17] Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, and it was subsequently conquered by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria.

By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power.[18] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, namely in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,[19] while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.[20] Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a major advanced country.[21][22][23]

Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically developed countries, with its economy ranking eighth largest in the world and third in the Eurozone. As an advanced economy, it has the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth, and is ranked third for its central bank gold reserve. Italy has a very high level of human development, and it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, and it is both a regional power[24][25] and a great power.[26][27] Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more. As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 54 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth-most visited country.

Etymology

Expansion of the territory known as Italy and the nearby islands from the establishment of the Roman Republic until Diocletian.

Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous.[28] One is that it was borrowed via Greek from the Oscan Víteliú 'land of calves' (cf. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf").[29] The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus,[30] mentioned also by Aristotle[31] and Thucydides.[32]

The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy, according to Antiochus of Syracuse, the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggio, and part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia. But by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region, but the Peninsula and its borders expanded over time.[33]

According to Strabo's Geographica, before the expansion of the Roman Republic, the name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between the strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto, corresponding roughly to the current region of Calabria. Later the term was extended by Romans to include the Italian Peninsula up to the Rubicon, a river located between Northern and Central Italy. In 49 BC, with the Lex Roscia, Julius Caesar gave Roman citizenship to the people of the Cisalpine Gaul,[34] while in 42 BCE the hitherto existing province was abolished, thus extending Italy to the north up to the southern foot of the Alps.[35][36]

It was during the reign of Emperor Augustus that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula until the Alps.[36] The islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD.[37]

Other Languages
Acèh: Itali
Адыгэбзэ: Италэ
адыгабзэ: Италие
Afrikaans: Italië
Akan: Italy
Alemannisch: Italien
አማርኛ: ጣልያን
Ænglisc: Italia
Аҧсшәа: Италиа
العربية: إيطاليا
aragonés: Italia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܛܠܝܐ
armãneashti: Italia
arpetan: Étalia
অসমীয়া: ইটালী
asturianu: Italia
Avañe'ẽ: Itália
авар: Италия
Aymar aru: Italiya
azərbaycanca: İtaliya
تۆرکجه: ایتالیا
বাংলা: ইতালি
Bân-lâm-gú: Í-tāi-lī
Basa Banyumasan: Italia
башҡортса: Италия
беларуская: Італія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Італія
भोजपुरी: इटली
Bikol Central: Italya
Bislama: Itali
български: Италия
Boarisch: Italien
བོད་ཡིག: ཨི་ཏ་ལི།
bosanski: Italija
brezhoneg: Italia
буряад: Итали
català: Itàlia
Чӑвашла: Итали
Cebuano: Italya
čeština: Itálie
Chamoru: Italia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Italia
Chi-Chewa: Italia
chiShona: Italy
chiTumbuka: Italy
corsu: Italia
Cymraeg: Yr Eidal
dansk: Italien
davvisámegiella: Itália
Deitsch: Idali
Deutsch: Italien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިޓަލީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Italska
डोटेली: इटाली
ཇོང་ཁ: ཨྀཊ་ལི་
eesti: Itaalia
Ελληνικά: Ιταλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Itâglia
español: Italia
Esperanto: Italio
estremeñu: Italia
euskara: Italia
eʋegbe: Italy
فارسی: ایتالیا
Fiji Hindi: Italy
føroyskt: Italia
français: Italie
Frysk: Itaalje
Fulfulde: Italiya
furlan: Italie
Gaeilge: An Iodáil
Gaelg: Yn Iddaal
Gagauz: İtaliya
Gàidhlig: An Eadailt
galego: Italia
ГӀалгӀай: Итали
贛語: 意大利
Gĩkũyũ: Itari
ગુજરાતી: ઈટલી
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌻𐌹𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इटली
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yi-thai-li
한국어: 이탈리아
Hausa: Italiya
Hawaiʻi: ʻĪkālia
հայերեն: Իտալիա
हिन्दी: इटली
hornjoserbsce: Italska
hrvatski: Italija
Ido: Italia
Igbo: Italy
Ilokano: Italia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইতালি
Bahasa Indonesia: Italia
interlingua: Italia
Interlingue: Italia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Italy
Ирон: Итали
isiXhosa: IItaly
isiZulu: ITaliya
íslenska: Ítalía
italiano: Italia
עברית: איטליה
Basa Jawa: Itali
Kabɩyɛ: Itaalii
kalaallisut: Italia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇಟಲಿ
Kapampangan: Italya
къарачай-малкъар: Италия
ქართული: იტალია
kaszëbsczi: Italskô
қазақша: Италия
kernowek: Itali
Kinyarwanda: Ubutaliyani
Kirundi: Ubutariyano
Kiswahili: Italia
коми: Италия
Kongo: Italia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Itali
kurdî: Îtalya
Кыргызча: Италия
Ladino: Italia
لۊری شومالی: ایتالیا
latgaļu: Italeja
Latina: Italia
latviešu: Itālija
Lëtzebuergesch: Italien
лезги: Италия
lietuvių: Italija
Ligure: Italia
Limburgs: Italië
lingála: Italya
Lingua Franca Nova: Italia
Livvinkarjala: Itualii
la .lojban.: italias
Luganda: Yitale
lumbaart: Itàlia
magyar: Olaszország
मैथिली: इटाली
македонски: Италија
Malagasy: Italia
മലയാളം: ഇറ്റലി
Malti: Italja
Māori: Itāria
मराठी: इटली
მარგალური: იტალია
مصرى: ايطاليا
مازِرونی: ایتالیا
Bahasa Melayu: Itali
Baso Minangkabau: Italia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: É-dâi-lé
Mirandés: Eitália
мокшень: Италие
монгол: Итали
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီတလီနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Italia
Dorerin Naoero: Itari
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Itali
Nederlands: Italië
Nedersaksies: Italiën
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᐃᑕᓖ
नेपाली: इटाली
नेपाल भाषा: इटाली
日本語: イタリア
Napulitano: Italia
нохчийн: Итали
Nordfriisk: Itaalien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Italii
norsk: Italia
norsk nynorsk: Italia
Nouormand: Italie
Novial: Italia
occitan: Itàlia
олык марий: Италий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇଟାଲୀ
Oromoo: Xaaliyaanii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Italiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਟਲੀ
पालि: इटली
Pälzisch: Italien
Pangasinan: Italia
پنجابی: اٹلی
Papiamentu: Italia
پښتو: اېټاليا
Patois: Itali
Перем Коми: Италья
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ីតាលី
Picard: Italie
Piemontèis: Italia
Tok Pisin: Itali
Plattdüütsch: Italien
polski: Włochy
Ποντιακά: Ιταλία
português: Itália
Qaraqalpaqsha: İtaliya
qırımtatarca: İtaliya
reo tahiti: ’Itāria
Ripoarisch: Italie
română: Italia
Romani: Italiya
rumantsch: Italia
Runa Simi: Italya
русиньскый: Італія
русский: Италия
саха тыла: Италия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱴᱟᱞᱤ
Gagana Samoa: Italia
संस्कृतम्: इटली
Sängö: Italùii
sardu: Itàlia
Scots: Italy
Seeltersk: Italien
Sesotho: Ithali
Sesotho sa Leboa: Italia
Setswana: Italia
shqip: Italia
sicilianu: Italia
සිංහල: ඉතාලිය
Simple English: Italy
سنڌي: اٽلي
SiSwati: INtaliyane
slovenčina: Taliansko
slovenščina: Italija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їталїꙗ
ślůnski: Italijo
Soomaaliga: Talyaaniga
کوردی: ئیتالیا
Sranantongo: Italiyanikondre
српски / srpski: Италија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Italija
Basa Sunda: Italia
suomi: Italia
svenska: Italien
Tagalog: Italya
தமிழ்: இத்தாலி
Taqbaylit: Ṭelyan
tarandíne: Itaglie
татарча/tatarça: Италия
తెలుగు: ఇటలీ
tetun: Itália
ትግርኛ: ጣልያን
тоҷикӣ: Итолиё
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎢᏔᎵ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Italy
Tshivenda: Italy
Türkçe: İtalya
Türkmençe: Italiýa
Twi: Italy
тыва дыл: Италия
удмурт: Италия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Italia
українська: Італія
اردو: اطالیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىتالىيە
Vahcuengh: Eiqdaihleih
vèneto: Itałia
vepsän kel’: Italii
Tiếng Việt: Ý
Volapük: Litaliyän
Võro: Itaalia
walon: Itåleye
文言: 義大利
West-Vlams: Itoalië
Winaray: Italya
Wolof: Itaali
吴语: 意大利
Xitsonga: Ithali
ייִדיש: איטאליע
Yorùbá: Itálíà
粵語: 意大利
Zazaki: İtalya
Zeêuws: Itâlië
žemaitėška: Italėjė
中文: 意大利