Italian Army

Italian Army
Esercito Italiano
Coat of arms of the Esercito Italiano.svg
Coat of arms of the Italian Army
Active27 March 1861 – today
Country Italy
AllegianceItalian Republic
RoleLand warfare
Size101,055 (2017) [1]
Part ofItalian Supreme Defense Council
Motto(s)Latin: Salus Rei Publicae Suprema Lex Esto
"The safeguard of the republic shall be the supreme law"
MarchParata d'Eroi ("Heroes's parade") by Francesco Pellegrino,
4 Maggio (May 4) by Fulvio Creux
Anniversaries4 November, National Unity and Armed Forces Day
4 May, Army Day
War of 1866
First Italo-Abyssinian War
Italo-Turkish War
World War I
Second Italo-Abyssinian War
Spanish Civil War
Italian invasion of Albania
World War II
Kosovo War
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan
War on Terrorism
Decorations3 Cavalier Crosses of the Military Order of Italy
1 Gold Medal of Military Valor
2 Gold Medals of Civil Valor
1 Silver Medal of Civil Valor
1 Silver Medal of Civil Merit
President of ItalySergio Mattarella
Capo di Stato Maggiore dell’Esercito
(Chief of Staff)
General Danilo Errico
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Luigi Cadorna
Armando Diaz
Emanuele Filiberto, 2nd Duke of Aosta
Enrico Caviglia
Pietro Badoglio
Ugo Cavallero
Rodolfo Graziani
Italo Gariboldi
Ettore Bastico
Giovanni Messe
LogoEsercito Italiano Logo.png
Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada.

The Italian Army (Italian: Esercito Italiano) is the land-based component of the Italian Armed Forces of the Italian Republic. The army's history dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. The army fought in colonial engagements in China, Libya, Northern Italy against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I, Abyssinia before World War II and in World War II in Albania, Greece, North Africa, Russia and Italy itself. During the Cold War, the army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east. Since the end of the Cold War, the army has seen extensive peacekeeping service and combat in Afghanistan and Iraq. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle, the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter, recently deployed in UN missions. The headquarters of the Army General Staff are located in Rome, at the back of the Presidential Palace. The army is an all-volunteer force of active-duty personnel.


The Italian Army originated as the Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy following the seizure of the Papal States and the unification of Italy (Risorgimento). In 1861, under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy was invited to take the throne and of the newly created kingdom.

Italian expeditions were dispatched to China during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 and to Libya during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912.

World War I

The Italian Royal Army's first real taste of modern warfare was during World War I. Most of the actions were fought in northern Italy and the Royal Army suffered many casualties. This included over 700,000 dead. In particular, the frequency of the offensives in which Italian soldiers participated between May 1915 and August 1917, one every three months, was higher than demanded by the armies on the Western Front. Italian discipline was also harsher, with punishments for infractions of duty of a severity not known in the German, French, and British armies.[2]

During the Interwar Years the Royal Army participated in the Italian Invasion of Ethiopia, provided men and materials during the Spanish Civil War to fight in the Corps of Volunteer Troops (Corpo Truppe Volontarie), and launched the Italian invasion of Albania.

World War II

On paper, the Royal Army was one of the largest ground forces in World War II, though in reality it could not field the numbers claimed, and it was one of the pioneers in the use of paratroopers. Due to their generally smaller size, many Italian divisions were reinforced by an Assault Group (Gruppo d'Assalto) of two battalions of Blackshirts (MVSN).

Reports of Italian military prowess in the Second World War were, almost always, dismissive. This perception was the result of disastrous Italian offensives against Egypt and the performance of the army in the Greco-Italian War. Both campaigns were ill-prepared and executed inadequately. The Italian 10th Army initially advanced into Egypt but surrendered after being pushed back into central Libya and almost all destroyed by a force one fifth its size in the British three-month campaign of Operation Compass.

Incompetent military leadership was aggravated by the Italian military's equipment, which predominantly dated back to the First World War and was not up to the standard of either the Allied or the German armies.[3] Italian 'medium' M11, M13, M14 and M15 tanks were at a marked disadvantage against the comparatively heavily armed American Sherman tanks, for example. More crucially, Italy lacked suitable quantities of equipment of all kinds and the Italian high command did not take necessary steps to plan for possible setbacks on the battlefield, or for proper logistical support to its field armies.[4] There were too few anti-aircraft weapons, obsolete anti-tank guns, and too few trucks.

The Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia fought under General Giovanni Messe, who acknowledged the limitations of his Corps in material and equipment and thus was relieved of his command on November 1, 1942. When the Soviet offensive Operation Saturn began on December 12, 1942 the Italian 8th Army was quickly crushed. Only about a third of its troops managed to escape the Soviet cauldron, most notably from the three Alpini Divisions Tridentina, Julia and Cuneense, which fought stubbornly and to almost their total annihilation to escape the Soviet encirclement (see: Battle of Nikolayevka).

In North Africa, the Italian 132 Armored Division Ariete and the 185 Airborne Division Folgore fought to total annihilation at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Although the battle was lost, the determined resistance of the Italian soldiers at the Battle of Keren in East Africa is still commemorated today by the Italian military.

After the Axis defeat in Tunisia the morale of the Italian troops dropped and when the Allies landed in Sicily on July 10, 1943 most Italian Coastal divisions simply dissolved. The sagging morale led to the overthrow of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy 15 days later.

In September 1943, Italy made an armistice with the Allies and split into the Italian Social Republic – effectively a puppet state of Germany – in the north and that of the Badoglio government in the south. The Italian Co-Belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano) was the army of the Italian royalist forces fighting on the side of the Allies in southern Italy after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943. The Italian soldiers fighting in this army no longer fought for Benito Mussolini as their allegiance was to King Victor Emmanuel and to Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia) Pietro Badoglio, the men who ousted Mussolini.

Cold War

The kingdom was replaced by a Republic in June 1946 and the Royal Army changed its name to become the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano). Initially the army fielded five infantry divisions, created from the five combat groups of the Italian Co-belligerent Army, and equipped with British materiel. Additionally the army fielded three internal security divisions without heavy equipment to garrison the countries two major islands:

As the status of the city of Free Territory of Trieste was disputed by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the Italian army moved the Folgore to Treviso and the Mantova to Gorizia in 1947. At the same time the army began the process of raising an additional seven divisions, and five Alpini brigades.

Following the creation of NATO, the Italian Army was integrated into NATO's Allied Forces Southern Europe and prepared for a feared invasion from the east, possibly via Yugoslavia. Allied Land Forces Southern Europe (LANDSOUTH), was activated on 10 July 1951 to defend northeastern Italy. The command was headquartered at Verona, and placed under Lieutenant General Maurizio Lazzaro De Castiglioni.[5] Some three infantry divisions and three brigades were the only forces initially available to this command to defend northeastern Italy. The divisions in question were the Infantry Division Mantova in Gorizia, the Motorized Infantry Division Folgore in Treviso, the Motorized Infantry Division Trieste in Bologna. Two of the three brigades were Alpini mountain infantry brigades – the Julia Alpine Brigade in Cividale del Friuli and Tridentina Alpine Brigade in Brixen, while the third brigade was the Ariete Armoured Brigade in Pordenone. Exercise "Italic Weld", a combined air-naval-ground exercise in northern Italy involving the United States, Italy, Turkey, and Greece, appears to have been one of the first exercises in which the new Italian Army orientation was tested.[6]

On 1 May 1952 the army activated one army command and two corps commands, the Third Army in Padua, and the IV Army Corps in Bolzano and V Army Corps in Vittorio Veneto, to be able to circumvent NATO's chain of command in case a war should break out between Italy and Yugoslavia for the Free Territory of Trieste.[7] Later in 1952 the army also raised the VI Army Corps in Bologna, followed by the III Army Corps in Milan in 1957, both of which were also assigned to the Third Army.

During the early 1960s the army reduced the Trieste, Friuli, Pozzuolo del Friuli, Pinerolo, Avellino and Aosta divisions to brigades and raised the I Paratroopers Brigade in Pisa. On 1 October 1965 the Infantry Brigade Avellino was disbanded and on 10 June 1967 the I Paratroopers Brigade was allowed to add Folgore to its name and was now named Paratroopers Brigade Folgore. With the easing of tensions between Italy and Yugoslavia the Third Army, along with VI Army Corps, was disbanded on 1 April 1972 and its functions taken over by NATO's Allied Forces Southern Europe in Verona. Before the disbanding of Third Army the army's structure was as follows:

1975 reform

The most significant reorganization of the Italian Army took place in 1975, when the regimental level was abolished and battalions came under direct command of newly formed multi-arms brigades. At the same time the reduction of the military service from 15 to 12 months for the army and air force and from 24 to 18 months for the navy, forced the army to reduce its forces by nearly 45,000 troops. Therefore, while in the existing brigades Orobica, Tridentina, Cadore, Julia, Taurinense, Friuli, Trieste, Folgore, Pinerolo, Aosta and III Missile Brigade only the regimental level was abolished, the divisions and Pozzuolo del Friuli brigade were subjected to major changes:

While the Cremona division was reduced to a brigade, the Granatieri di Sardegna and Legnano divisions, and the Pozzuolo del Friuli brigade were split to create two new brigades each. Afterwards the three divisions ceased to exist.

Before 1975 After 1975 Notes
Motorized Infantry Division Cremona Motorized Brigade Cremona under 3rd Army Corps
Motorized Infantry Division Granatieri di Sardegna Mechanized Brigade Granatieri di Sardegna under Central Military Region
Motorized Brigade Acqui under Central Military Region
Motorized Infantry Division Legnano Mechanized Brigade Legnano joined the Armoured DivisionCentauro
Mechanized Brigade Brescia joined the Mechanized Division Mantova
Cavalry Brigade Pozzuolo del Friuli Armoured Brigade Pozzuolo del Friuli joined the Mechanized Division Mantova
Armoured Brigade Vittorio Veneto joined the Mechanized Division Folgore

The remaining four divisions were also subjected to major changes and reductions, however, unlike the above three divisions, they remained in service after the reform. The units of the Folgore and Mantova divisions were mostly disbanded and the remnants used to create one brigade each; then the two divisions were augmented by two brigades each to bring back up to strength. The Centauro division was split into two brigades and then brought back to full strength by adding the Mechanized Brigade Legnano. Only the Ariete division saw no reduction of its ranks and its three regiments were used to create three brigades.

Name before 1975 Brigades created from divisional assets in 1975 Name after 1975 Assigned brigades after 1975 Notes
Motorized Infantry Division Folgore Mechanized Brigade Gorizia Mechanized Division Folgore Mechanized Brigade Gorizia
Mechanized Brigade Trieste from the Tuscan-Emilian Military Region
Armoured Brigade Vittorio Veneto split from the Pozzuolo del Friuli brigade
Infantry Division Mantova Mechanized Brigade Isonzo Mechanized Division Mantova Mechanized Brigade Isonzo
Mechanized Brigade Brescia split from the Legnano division
Armoured Brigade Pozzuolo del Friuli joined from the 5th Army Corps
Armoured Division Centauro 31st Armoured Brigade Curtatone
3rd Mechanized Brigade Goito
Armoured Division Centauro 31st Armoured Brigade Curtatone
3rd Mechanized Brigade Goito
Mechanized Brigade Legnano former Legnano division
Armoured Division Ariete 8th Mechanized Brigade Garibaldi
32nd Armored Brigade Mameli
132nd Armoured Brigade Manin
Armoured Division Ariete 8th Mechanized Brigade Garibaldi
32nd Armored Brigade Mameli
132nd Armoured Brigade Manin

After the reform the structure of the army was as depicted in the following graphic:

The brigades under operational control of the Military Regions were:

Structure of the Italian Army in 1984 (click to enlarge)

1986 reform

In 1986 when the remaining four divisional headquarters were dissolved and all brigades in Northern Italy came under direct command of the Army's three Army Corps, while the brigades in Central and Southern Italy came under operational control of the local administrative Military Regions. With the disappearance of the divisions the army renamed some of the divisional brigades and granted all of them new coat of arms to reflect their new independence. By 1989 the army was structured as depicted in the graphic below:

Structure of the Italian Army in 1989 (click to enlarge)

Post Cold War

At the end of the Cold War in 1989 the Italian Army consisted of 26 Combat Brigades: four Armored Brigades, ten Mechanized Infantry Brigades, five Motorized Infantry Brigades, five Alpine Brigades, one Rocket Artillery Brigade and one Airborne Brigade.

The units were placed as follows under the three Army Corps's:

The brigades under operational control of the Military Regions were:

The Armored Brigades consisted of one Command & Signals Battalion, two or three Tank Battalions with Leopard 1A2 tanks, one Mechanized Infantry Battalion with M113 APCs, one Self-propelled Field Artillery Group with M109 howitzers, one Logistic Battalion, an Anti-Tank Company and an Engineer Company.

The Mechanized Brigades consisted of one Command & Signals Battalion, one Tank Battalion (Leopard 1), three Mechanized Infantry Battalions (M113), one Self-propelled Field Artillery Battalion with M109 howitzers, one Logistic Battalion, an Anti-Tank Company and an Engineer Company; however the Pinerolo Mechanized Brigades fielded a Field Artillery Group with FH-70 howitzers. Additionally the Gorizia and Mantova mechanized brigades fielded two Position Infantry battalions each, which were tasked with manning fortifications and bunkers along the Yugoslav-Italian border.

The Motorized Brigades consisted of one Command & Signals Battalion, one Armored Battalion (a mixed unit of tanks and mechanized infantry), three Motorized Infantry Battalions, one Field Artillery Group (FH-70), one Logistic Battalion, an Anti-Tank Company and an Engineer Company; however the Sassari Brigade did not contain a field artillery battalion.

The Folgore Parachute Brigade did field one Command & Signals Battalion, one Parachute Assault Battalion (a Special Forces Unit), three Parachute Infantry Battalions, one Airborne Field Artillery Group with Mod 56 howitzers, one Logistic Battalion, one Army Aviation Helicopter Battalion and an Engineer Company.

Three of the five Alpine Brigades consisted of one Command & Signals Battalion, two Alpini Battalions, one Alpini Training Battalion, two Mountain Artillery Groups (Mod 56), one Logistic Battalion, an Anti-Tank Company and an Engineer Company; while the Tridentina brigade fielded an Alpini d'Arresto Battalion instead of the Alpini Training Battalion. The exception was the Julia Alpine Brigade which consisted of one Command & Signals Battalion, four Alpini Battalions, one Alpini d'Arresto Battalion, one Alpini Training Battalion, three Mountain Artillery Battalions, one Logistic Battalion, an Anti-Tank Company and an Engineer Company, making the Julia the largest brigade of the Italian Army. The d'Arresto Alpini and Infantry units were designated to hold specific fortified locations directly at the border to slow down an attacking enemy. They were not a maneuver element but attached for training and logistic purposes to brigades stationed closest to the border.

The Missile Brigade Aquileia fielded a mix of heavy artillery and missile units, both capable of firing tactical nuclear weapons. The main missile weapon of the brigade was the MGM-52 Lance missile.

Unit Summary

In total the Italian Army fielded at the end of the Cold War:

Number Unit Type Equipment Notes
Tank Battalions Leopard 1A2
Two battalions per Armored Brigade, one battalion per mechanized brigade, while the Ariete brigade fielded three tank battalions. Each tank battalion fielded three tank companies of 16 tanks and one tank for the battalion commander for a total of 49 tanks.
Armored Battalions Leopard 1A2
M113 APC
Armored battalions combined tanks and mechanized infantry and one was assigned to each Motorized Brigade. Two battalions were attached to the 4th Army Corps, one battalion to the Capital Command in Rome, one battalion of the 5th Army Corps and two were training battalions of the Armored Cavalry School in Lecce.
Reconnaissance Squadrons Leopard 1A2 Originally each division had one reconnaissance squadron, with the abolition of the divisional level one squadron was reformed as tank squadron and joined the Brescia brigade, one was reformed as mechanized squadron and joined the Vittorio Veneto brigade, while the two remaining reconnaissance squadrons joining the Mameli and Pozzuolo del Friuli brigades.
Mechanized Infantry M113 APC One battalion per Armored Brigade, three battalions per mechanized brigade. The twelve Bersaglieri battalions were without exception mechanized infantry units; the remainder of the mechanized infantry were two Granatieri di Sardegna battalions, sixteen infantry battalions and three cavalry squadrons. One battalion as training and demonstration unit as part of the army's Infantry and Cavalry School in Cesano.
Motorized Infantry Two battalions per motorized brigade and one battalion in Triest as part of the Vittorio Veneto brigade tasked with defending the city in case of a Yugoslavian attack.
Alpini Two battalions per Alpine Brigade; with the Julia brigade fielding a total of four Alpini battalions, an additional battalion under the Military Alpine School in Aosta.
Parachute Infantry One Carabinieri parachute battalion, two infantry parachute battalions, and one parachute assault (Special Forces) battalion. Additionally the 4th Army Corps fielded an Alpini parachute Company.
d'Arresto Two Alpini and 5 infantry battalions designated to hold specific fortified sectors of the Eastern Italian border.
Amphibious Infantry LVT-7 One amphibious infantry battalion (Lagunari), one amphibious vehicle battalion and one training company tasked with defending Venice under the Amphibious Troop Command.
Training Battalions The training battalions were tasked with the basic training of draftees: four Alpini training battalions trained draftees destined for Alpine units, one parachute infantry battalion trained the parachute brigades recruits, one battalion the recruits destined for the Aquileia Artillery brigade, one Granatieri battalion the recruits destined for the Granatieri di Sardegna brigade, while the remaining 26 infantry battalions, trained all incoming recruits regardless of which unit they would ultimately be assigned to.
Self-Propelled Artillery M109 howitzers One group (equivalent to a battalion) per armored and mechanized brigade (with the exception of the Pinerolo, Legnano, Trieste, Granatieri di Sardegna and Brescia mechanized brigades), two groups in one regiment under 3rd Army Corps, one battery as part of the army's artillery school in Rome and one training battery on Sardinia.
Field Artillery M114 howitzers One group per motorized brigade (with the exception of the Sassari Motorized Brigade), one group per Alpini brigade, one group in Pinerolo, Legnano, Trieste, Granatieri di Sardegna and Brescia mechanized brigades, one group under 5th Army Corps, one under VII Territorial Command, three in Southern Italy under X Territorial Command and one battery as part of the Army's artillery school in Rome.
Mountain Artillery Mod 56 howitzers One group per Alpine Brigade, with the Julia Alpine Brigade fielding and additional group.
Airborne Artillery Mod 56 howitzers One airborne field artillery group as part of the Folgore Parachute Brigade.
Heavy Field Artillery FH-70 howitzers Heavy Field Artillery groups served as Corps Artillery: two under 3rd Army Corps, two under 4th Alpine Army Corps, four under 5th Army Corps and one battery as part of the army's artillery school in Rome.
Heavy Artillery M115 howitzers One group under 5th Army Corps. Originally capable of firing tactical nuclear ammunition and part of the Aquileia artillery brigade, the unit lost its nuclear role in 1986.
Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery M110 howitzers One group as part of Aquileia brigade capable of firing tactical nuclear ammunition.
Missile Artillery MGM-52 Lance later M270 MLRS The only missile artillery group of the army was capable to firing tactical nuclear missiles.
Target Acquisition Seven Artillery Specialist Groups with artillery radars and drones supporting the army corps and one target acquisition group supporting the Missile Brigade Aquileia.
Light Air-defense Artillery FIM-92 Stinger 40/70 Anti-air guns All under operational control of the Army's Air-defense Artillery Command, one tasked with defending the Air Force's airfields in Italy's North-East.
Air-defense Missile Artillery MIM-23 Hawk Grouped in two regiments under operational control of the Army's Air-defense Artillery Command.
Engineer Battalions Engineer battalions were under the Army Corps' and the Military Regional Commands and came in various specializations: Eight pioneer battalions tasked with construction duties, two combat engineer battalions supported the Army Corps', two railway construction and two bridge construction battalions were grouped into two regiments under the Army's Engineer Inspectorate, one pioneer battalion served as training and demonstration unit under the Army's engineering school, while two mining battalions were tasked with building and maintaining fortifications in the Alpine border regions of Italy. Additionally 24 Combat Engineer companies supported each of the army's brigades (with the exception of the Sassari brigade).
Reconnaissance Helicopter AB 206 A109 EOA Four squadrons flying AB 206 and one squadron flying A109 EOA helicopters.
Transport Helicopter AB 205 AB 412 CH-47 Chinook One squadron flying CH-47 Chinook Helicopters in Viterbo and six squadrons flying AB 412 and AB 205 helicopters.
General Aviation AB 212 SM-1019 The squadrons were dispersed all over the nation and supported various regional commands.
Signal Battalions Additionally two independent companies.
Electronic Warfare Battalions
NBC-defense Battalion Part of Engineer corps, but under direct command of the Army's General Staff.
Logistic Battalions One logistic battalion per brigade; with the exception of the Sassari brigade.
Logistic Maneuver Battalions The logistic maneuver battalions ensured the mobility and logistic support of the Army's three Corps Commands.
Transport Battalions Transport battalions provided mobility and logistic support to Territorial Commands and the Army and Armed Forces General Staffs in Rome.
Command and Signal Battalions One command and signals battalion per brigade, one for the Army's Air-defense Artillery Command and a Command and Signals Company for the Amphibious Troop Command.

Additionally the Army fielded 23 Anti-tank companies, one in each combat brigade with the exception of the Folgore and Sassari brigades

1991 reform

In 1991 the Army began the post-Cold War draw-down of its forces with the disbandment of seven brigades and a large number of smaller units. The brigades disbanded in 1991 were the Aquileia, Brescia, Goito, Mameli, Orobica, Trieste and Vittorio Veneto. The units subordinated to these brigades were mostly disbanded, while the Garibaldi brigade command was transferred with one of its battalions to Campania.

1997 reform

With the relaxing military situation the Italian Army kept drawing down forces and disbanding smaller military units, which necessitated a major reorganization by 1997 to merge the remaining battalions into coherent units and to disband now superfluous brigade commands. Thus a further six brigades were disbanded during the latter half of 1996 and 1997: Acqui, Cadore, Cremona, Gorizia, Legnano and Mantova. In addition the remaining units were moved to new bases, changed composition, designation and tasks. The three Army Corps's were renamed and their functions expanded: the 3rd Army Corps became the Projection Forces Command (COMFOP) commanding the rapid reaction forces of the Army, the 4th Alpine Army Corps became the Alpine Troops Command (COMALP) focusing on peace-keeping operations and the 5th Army Corps became the 1st Defense Forces Command (COMFOD1) tasked with defending Northern Italy. On January 1, 1998 the 2nd Defense Forces Command (COMFOD2) was activated in Naples and tasked with defending South and Central Italy. During the Cold War the Italian Army units were to be commanded during war by NATO's LANDSOUTH Command in Verona, on October 1, 1997 out of elements of the aforementioned NATO Command the new Operational Terrestrial Forces Command (COMFOTER) was activated. The COMFOTER took command of all the combat, combat support, combat service support and CIS units of the Italian Army. Along with the COMFOTER in Verona a Support Command (COMSUP) was raised in Treviso, which gained operational control of all the remaining combat support, combat service support and CIS units of the Army. The COMSUP controlled three division sized formation (Army Aviation Command, Air-Defense Artillery Command, C4-IEW Command) and three brigade sized formations (Field Artillery Brigade, Engineer Brigade, Logistic Support Command).

Thus after the 1997 reform the structure of the Italian Army was as follows:

2002 reform

Alpini of the 7th Alpini Regiment during the Falzarego 2011 exercise

Between 1997 and 2002 the Army continued to tweak the new structure and with the abolition of obligatory military service a further two brigades (Centauro, Tridentina) were disbanded in 2002. On December 1, 2000 the COMFOP became the NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Italy (NRDC-IT) and passed its subordinate units to the COMFOD 1 (Friuli, Folgore) and COMFOD 2 (Garibaldi) commands. The Friuli Brigade changed composition and became an airmobile brigade with Army Aviation, Cavalry and Infantry units. The COMSUP had already been reorganized and streamlined in 2000.

After 2002 the structure of the Italian Army was as follows:

2011 reform

During 2011 some small changes regarding the support units of the Army were enacted. The COMSUP took command of the Army's schools and merged them where possible with the support brigades. Minor units were moved South and to the island to reduce the Army's footprint in the wealthier North of Italy. At the same time the designation of the Pinerolo brigade was changed back to Mechanized Infantry Brigade. Afterwards the COMSUP consisted, besides four Army schools of the following commands:

  • Air-Defense Command (Sabaudia)
  • Artillery Command (Bracciano)
  • Engineer Command (Rome)
  • Logistic Projection Command (Rome)

2013 reform

In 2013 the Army began a major reform. The three corps level commands COMFOD 1, COMFOD 2 and COMALP were disbanded and the Mantova Division Command moved from Vittorio Veneto to Florence, where it was renamed as Division "Friuli", taking the name and traditions of the Friuli Air Assault Brigade.[8] Together with the other two divisions Acqui and Tridentina it took command of the operational brigades of the Italian Army.

The Logistic Projection Command was disbanded and its units transferred to the brigades. As part of the reform the Army created the new Army Special Forces Command (COMFOSE) in Pisa, which took command of all Special Operations Forces of the Army. Furthermore, the Operational Terrestrial Forces Command (COMFOTER) in Verona was split on 1 October 2016 into the COMFOTER – Army Operational Command in Rome and the COMFOTER – SUPPORT Command in Verona.

At the end of the reform the plan envisions that the Army will consist of:

However, as of March 2018 the merger of the Airmobile Brigade Friuli and the Cavalry Brigade Pozzuolo del Friuli, as well as the disbanding of the Granatieri di Sardegna Brigade, are on hold.

Each maneuver brigade, with the exception of the Pozzuolo del Friuli and Sassari brigades, will field the following units after the reform: one combat service support battalion with the brigade staff, one cavalry reconnaissance regiment, three combat maneuver regiments, one artillery regiment, one engineer regiment, one logistic regiment.

The Pozzuolo del Friuli brigade will field a cavalry reconnaissance regiment, an air-assault infantry regiment, an amphibious-assault infantry regiment, an army aviation reconnaissance helicopter regiment, an attack helicopter regiment, a field artillery regiment, an engineer regiment, a logistic regiment as well as the standard combat service support battalion with the brigade staff.

The Sassari brigade will not field a cavalry reconnaissance regiment and an artillery regiment, unless funds can be found to raise these units on the island of Sardinia.

All army schools, training regiments and training centres will be combined into the newly raised Army Formation, Specialisation and Doctrine Command (Comando per la Formazione, Specializzazione e Dottrina e dell’Esercito or COMFORDOT) in Rome.