Israel

State of Israel
  • מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל ( Hebrew)
  • دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل ( Arabic)
Anthem: " Hatikvah" ( Hebrew for "The Hope")

Location of Israel (in green)
Location of Israel
Capital
and largest city
Jerusalem [note 1]
31°47′N 35°13′E / 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783; 35.217
Official languages
Ethnic groups (2017)
Religion (2015)
Demonym Israeli
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
•  President
Reuven Rivlin
Benjamin Netanyahu
Yuli-Yoel Edelstein
Esther Hayut
Legislature Knesset
Independence
•  Declared
14 May 1948
11 May 1949
Area
• Total
20,770–22,072 km2 (8,019–8,522 sq mi) [a] ( 150th)
• Water
440 km2 (170 sq mi)
• Water (%)
2.1
Population
• 2017 estimate
8,785,940 [3] ( 97th)
• 2008 census
7,412,200 [4]
• Density
395/km2 (1,023.0/sq mi) ( 34th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 [5] estimate
• Total
$315.582 billion ( 54th)
• Per capita
$36,250 ( 35th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 [5] estimate
• Total
$348.006 billion ( 34th)
• Per capita
$39,974 ( 23rd)
Gini (2013) 42.8 [6]
medium ·  47th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.899 [7]
very high ·  19th
Currency New shekel (‎) ( ILS)
Time zone IST ( UTC+2)
• Summer ( DST)
IDT ( UTC+3)
Date format
  • יי-חח-שששש‎ ( AM)
  • dd-mm-yyyy ( CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +972
ISO 3166 code IL
Internet TLD .il
  1. ^ 20,770 is Israel within the Green Line. 22,072 includes the annexed Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.

Israel ( əl/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), officially the State of Israel ( Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; Arabic: دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎), is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip [8] to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. [2] [9] Israel's economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, [10] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is not recognised internationally. [11] [12] [13] [note 2] [14] [15] The population of Israel was estimated in 2017 to be 8,785,940 people, [3] of whom 74.7% were Jewish, 20.8% Arab and 4.5% others. [1]

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. [16] [17] The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. [18] Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. [19] [20] The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Jewish kingdom in 110 BCE, [21] which came to an end in 63 BCE when Judea became a client state of the Roman Republic. [22] Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population [21] and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. [23] Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century Palestine was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, Jewish nationalism led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman and later British Palestine.

In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. [24] The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, and rejected by Arab leaders. [25] [26] [27] The following year, the Jewish Agency declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel." [28] Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, [29] in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after 2005 disengagement). [note 3] It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. [30] [31] [32] [33] Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. [note 3] [35] Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been implemented.

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state. [36] Israel is a representative democracy [37] with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. [38] [39] The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, [40] with the 34th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. [41] Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, [7] and has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. [42]

Etymology

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.

Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" ( Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל About this sound  Medīnat Yisrā'el [mediˈnat jisʁaˈʔel]; Arabic: دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيلDawlat Isrāʼīl [dawlat ʔisraːˈʔiːl]) after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel ("the Land of Israel"), Zion, and Judea, were considered but rejected. [43] In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term " Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. [44]

The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively. [45] The name "Israel" ( Standard Yisraʾel, Isrāʾīl; Septuagint Greek: Ἰσραήλ Israēl; 'El(God) persists/rules', though after Hosea 12:4 often interpreted as "struggle with God") [46] [47] [48] [49] in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord. [50] Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, [51] until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, [52] led the Israelites back into Canaan during the " Exodus". The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE). [53]

The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. From 1920, the whole region was known as Palestine (under British Mandate) [note 4] until the Israeli Declaration of Independence of 1948. [54] Through the centuries, the territory was known by a variety of other names, including Canaan, Djahy, Samaria, Judea, Yehud, Iudaea, Coele-Syria, Syria Palaestina and Southern Syria.

Other Languages
Acèh: Israèl
Адыгэбзэ: Исраел
адыгабзэ: Исраил
Afrikaans: Israel
Alemannisch: Israel
አማርኛ: እስራኤል
Ænglisc: Israhēl
العربية: إسرائيل
aragonés: Israel
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ
armãneashti: Israel
arpetan: Israèl
অসমীয়া: ইজৰাইল
asturianu: Israel
Avañe'ẽ: Irrael
azərbaycanca: İsrail
تۆرکجه: ايسرائيل
bamanankan: Israil
বাংলা: ইসরায়েল
Bân-lâm-gú: Í-sek-lia̍t
башҡортса: Израиль
беларуская: Ізраіль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ізраіль
भोजपुरी: इजराइल
Bikol Central: Israel
български: Израел
Boarisch: Israel
bosanski: Izrael
brezhoneg: Israel
буряад: Израиль
català: Israel
Чӑвашла: Израиль
Cebuano: Israel
čeština: Izrael
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Israel
chiShona: Israel
chiTumbuka: Israel
corsu: Israele
Cymraeg: Israel
dansk: Israel
davvisámegiella: Israel
Deutsch: Israel
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިސްރާއީލު
dolnoserbski: Israel
eesti: Iisrael
Ελληνικά: Ισραήλ
español: Israel
Esperanto: Israelo
estremeñu: Israel
euskara: Israel
فارسی: اسرائیل
Fiji Hindi: Israel
føroyskt: Ísrael
français: Israël
Frysk: Israel
Gaeilge: Iosrael
Gaelg: Israel
Gagauz: İsrail
Gàidhlig: Iosrael
galego: Israel
贛語: 以色列
Gĩkũyũ: Israel
ગુજરાતી: ઈઝરાયલ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐍃𐍂𐌰𐌴𐌻
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इस्राएल
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yî-set-lie̍t
한국어: 이스라엘
Hausa: Isra'ila
Hawaiʻi: ʻIseraʻela
Հայերեն: Իսրայել
हिन्दी: इज़राइल
hornjoserbsce: Israel
hrvatski: Izrael
Ido: Israel
Igbo: Israel
Ilokano: Israel
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইসরাইল
Bahasa Indonesia: Israel
interlingua: Israel
Interlingue: Israel
Ирон: Израиль
isiZulu: Isreyili
íslenska: Ísrael
italiano: Israele
עברית: ישראל
Basa Jawa: Israèl
kalaallisut: Israel
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್
Kapampangan: Israel
ქართული: ისრაელი
kaszëbsczi: Izrael
қазақша: Израиль
kernowek: Ysrael
Kinyarwanda: Isirayeli
Kiswahili: Israel
коми: Израиль
Kongo: Israel
Kreyòl ayisyen: Izrayèl
Kurdî: Îsraêl
Кыргызча: Асрайыл
Ladino: Israel
лезги: Израиль
لۊری شومالی: إسرائيل
Latina: Israël
latviešu: Izraēla
Lëtzebuergesch: Israel
lietuvių: Izraelis
Ligure: Isræ
Limburgs: Israël
lingála: Israel
Livvinkarjala: Izrail
la .lojban.: brogu'e
lumbaart: Israel
magyar: Izrael
मैथिली: इजरायल
македонски: Израел
Malagasy: Isiraely
മലയാളം: ഇസ്രയേൽ
Malti: Iżrael
Māori: Iharaira
मराठी: इस्रायल
მარგალური: ისრაელი
مصرى: اسرائيل
مازِرونی: اسرائیل
Bahasa Melayu: Israel
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ī-sáik-liĕk
Mirandés: Eisrael
мокшень: Израиль
монгол: Израиль
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အစ္စရေးနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Israel
Dorerin Naoero: Iteraer
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Isireli
Nederlands: Israël
Nedersaksies: Israël
नेपाली: इजरायल
नेपाल भाषा: इजरायल
日本語: イスラエル
Napulitano: Israele
нохчийн: Израиль
Nordfriisk: Israel
Norfuk / Pitkern: Esrail
norsk: Israel
norsk nynorsk: Israel
Novial: Israel
occitan: Israèl
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇସ୍ରାଏଲ
Oromoo: Isiraa'el
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Isroil
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਜ਼ਰਾਇਲ
पालि: इस्रैल
Pälzisch: Israel
پنجابی: اسرائیل
Papiamentu: Israel
پښتو: اسرائيل
Patois: Izrel
Перем Коми: Исраэль
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ីស្រាអែល
Piemontèis: Israel
Tok Pisin: Israel
Plattdüütsch: Israel
polski: Izrael
Ποντιακά: Ισραήλ
português: Israel
Qaraqalpaqsha: İzrail
qırımtatarca: İsrail
Ripoarisch: Israel
română: Israel
Romani: Israel
Runa Simi: Israyil
русиньскый: Ізраіль
русский: Израиль
саха тыла: Исраил
Gagana Samoa: Isalaeru
संस्कृतम्: इजराइल
sardu: Israele
Scots: Israel
Seeltersk: Israel
Sesotho sa Leboa: Israel
shqip: Izraeli
sicilianu: Israeli
Simple English: Israel
SiSwati: Ka-Israyeli
slovenčina: Izrael
slovenščina: Izrael
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їꙁдраил҄ь
ślůnski: Izrael
Soomaaliga: Israaiil
کوردی: ئیسرائیل
Sranantongo: Israel
српски / srpski: Израел
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Izrael
Basa Sunda: Israél
suomi: Israel
svenska: Israel
Tagalog: Israel
தமிழ்: இசுரேல்
Taqbaylit: Israyil
tarandíne: Isdraele
татарча/tatarça: Исраил
తెలుగు: ఇజ్రాయిల్
tetun: Izraél
тоҷикӣ: Исроил
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎢᏏᎵᏱ
ತುಳು: ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್
Türkçe: İsrail
Türkmençe: Ysraýyl
удмурт: Израиль
українська: Ізраїль
اردو: اسرائیل
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسرائىلىيە
Vahcuengh: Israel
vèneto: Israełe
vepsän kel’: Izrail'
Tiếng Việt: Israel
Volapük: Yisraelän
Võro: Iisrael
文言: 以色列
West-Vlams: Israël
Winaray: Israel
Wolof: Israayil
吴语: 以色列
ייִדיש: ישראל
Yorùbá: Ísráẹ́lì
粵語: 以色列
Zazaki: İsrail
Zeêuws: Israël
žemaitėška: Izraelis
中文: 以色列
डोटेली: इजरायल
Kabɩyɛ: Izrɛɛlɩ