Isle of Man

Isle of Man
Mannin, Ellan Vannin (Manx)
Motto: "Quocunque Jeceris Stabit" (Latin)
"Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand"[1]
Location of the  Isle of Man  (red)in the British Isles, Western Europe
Location of the  Isle of Man  (red)

in the British Isles, Western Europe

StatusCrown dependency
Capital
and largest settlement
Douglas (Manx: Doolish)
54°09′N 4°29′W / 54°09′N 4°29′W / 54.150; -4.483
Official languagesEnglish
(official, de facto)
Manx
(historical and heritage language)[2]
ReligionChristianity (Church of England)
DemonymManx
GovernmentParliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy with a de facto non-partisan democracy
Elizabeth II
Sir Richard Gozney
Howard Quayle
LegislatureTynwald
Legislative Council
House of Keys
Establishment1765
Area
• Total
572 km2 (221 sq mi) (unranked)
• Water (%)
0
Population
• 2011 census
83,314[3]
• Density
148/km2 (383.3/sq mi) (78th)
GDP (PPP)2010 estimate
• Total
£4.1 billion (162nd)
• Per capita
US$53,800[clarification needed] (11th/12th)
Gini41[4]
medium
HDI (2010)0.849[5]
very high · 14th
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP);
Manx pound (IMP), legal tender only in the Isle of Man
Time zoneGMT (UTC)
• Summer (DST)
BST (UTC+1)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on theleft
Calling code
ISO 3166 codeIM
Internet TLD.im

The Isle of Man (Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), also known simply as Mann (n/; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

Approximately ranked by the World Bank as having the fifth highest gross national income per capita in 2016, using the Atlas method,[6] the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each.[7]

The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was also known as King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103.[8]

In 1266, the island became part of Scotland under the Treaty of Perth, after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom: it retained its status as an internally self-governing Crown dependency.

The Isle of Man parliament, Tynwald, became in 1881 the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, but this excluded married women.[9][10]

In 2016, the Isle of Man was the first whole nation to be awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO.[11]

Name

The Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan (Manx pronunciation: [ɛlʲən]) is a Manx word meaning 'island'; Mannin (IPA: [manɪn]) appears in the genitive case as Vannin (IPA: [vanɪn]), with initial consonant mutation, hence Ellan Vannin, "Island of Mann". The short form often used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin,[12] though sometimes the name is written as Man. The earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Manu or Mana.[13]

The Old Irish form of the name is Manau or Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw, also reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth.[14] The oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin (Julius Caesar, 54 BC); in the 1st century, Pliny the Elder records it as Monapia or Monabia, and Ptolemy (2nd century) as Monœda (Mοναοιδα, Monaoida) or Mοναρινα (Monarina), in Koine Greek. Later Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia (Orosius, 416),[15] and Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön.[16]

The name is probably cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn,[14] usually derived from a Celtic word for 'mountain' (reflected in Welsh mynydd, Breton menez, and Scottish Gaelic monadh),[17][18] from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos.

The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology (corresponding to Welsh Manawydan fab Llŷr).[19] In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, and gave name to, the Isle of Man".[20] Later, a Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem (dated 1504).[21]

Other Languages
Acèh: Pulo Man
Afrikaans: Man (eiland)
Ænglisc: Manīeg
العربية: جزيرة مان
aragonés: Isla de Man
arpetan: Ila de Man
asturianu: Islla de Man
azərbaycanca: Men adası
تۆرکجه: مان آداسی
Bân-lâm-gú: Man Tó
башҡортса: Мэн Утрауы
беларуская: Востраў Мэн
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мэн (востраў)
भोजपुरी: आइल्स ऑफ मैन
български: Ман (остров)
Boarisch: Isle of Man
bosanski: Ostrvo Man
brezhoneg: Manav
català: Illa de Man
Чӑвашла: Мэн утравĕ
Cebuano: Isle of Man
čeština: Man (ostrov)
Cymraeg: Ynys Manaw
davvisámegiella: Mannin
Deutsch: Isle of Man
dolnoserbski: Man
eesti: Man
Ελληνικά: Νήσος του Μαν
español: Isla de Man
Esperanto: Manksinsulo
estremeñu: Man
euskara: Man
فارسی: جزیره من
føroyskt: Mann
français: Île de Man
Gaelg: Mannin
Gàidhlig: Eilean Mhanainn
galego: Illa de Man
хальмг: Мэнин Арл
한국어: 맨섬
Hausa: Man
Հայերեն: Մեն կղզի
हिन्दी: आइल ऑफ़ मैन
hornjoserbsce: Man
hrvatski: Otok Man
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আইসল অফ ম্যান
Bahasa Indonesia: Pulau Man
interlingua: Insula de Man
italiano: Isola di Man
עברית: האי מאן
Basa Jawa: Pulo Man
ქართული: მენი
қазақша: Мэн аралы
kernowek: Ynys Manow
Kinyarwanda: Ikirwa cya Man
Kiswahili: Isle of Man
Кыргызча: Мэн аралы
لۊری شومالی: میناڤٱ مٱن
Latina: Monapia
latviešu: Menas Sala
lietuvių: Meno sala
Ligure: Izoa de Man
Limburgs: Man (eiland)
lingála: Esanga ya Man
lumbaart: Isula de Man
magyar: Man
македонски: Ман (остров)
മലയാളം: ഐൽ ഒഫ് മാൻ
Māori: Motu o Man
Bahasa Melayu: Pulau Man
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Man Dō̤
Nederlands: Man (eiland)
Nedersaksies: Man (eilaand)
日本語: マン島
Nordfriisk: Eilun Man
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ailen o' Maan
norsk: Man
norsk nynorsk: Isle of Man
Nouormand: Île dé Man
Novial: Isle de Man
occitan: Illa de Man
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੈਨ ਟਾਪੂ
پنجابی: آئل آف مین
Piemontèis: Ìsola ëd Man
Plattdüütsch: Isle of Man
polski: Wyspa Man
português: Ilha de Man
română: Insula Man
Runa Simi: Man wat'a
русский: Остров Мэн
Scots: Isle o Man
Seeltersk: Man
sicilianu: Ìsula di Man
Simple English: Isle of Man
slovenčina: Ostrov Man
slovenščina: Man
српски / srpski: Острво Мен
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Man (otok)
Basa Sunda: Pulo Man
suomi: Mansaari
svenska: Isle of Man
Tagalog: Pulo ng Man
தமிழ்: மாண் தீவு
татарча/tatarça: Мэн утравы
Türkçe: Man Adası
українська: Острів Мен
Tiếng Việt: Đảo Man
文言: 曼島
Winaray: Isla han Man
吴语: 马恩岛
粵語: 馬恩島
Zazaki: Adey Mani
Zeêuws: Eiland Man
中文: 曼島