Isambard Kingdom Brunel

Isambard Kingdom Brunel
FRS
A 19th century man wearing a jacket, trousers and waistcoat, with his hands in his pockets and a cigar in mouth, wearing a tall stovepipe top hat, standing in front of giant iron chains on a drum.
Brunel by the launching chains of the SS Great Eastern
by Robert Howlett, 1857
Born(1806-04-09)9 April 1806
Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
Died15 September 1859(1859-09-15) (aged 53)
Westminster, London, England
NationalityBritish
Education
OccupationEngineer
Spouse(s)Mary Elizabeth Horsley
(m. 1836)
Children
Parent(s)
Engineering career
Discipline
InstitutionsInstitution of Civil Engineers
Projects
Significant designRoyal Albert Bridge
Signature
Isambard Kingdom Brunel signature.svg

Isambard Kingdom Brunel FRS (l/; 9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history",[1] "one of the 19th-century engineering giants",[2] and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, [who] changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".[3] Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship, and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering.

Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his career, Brunel achieved many engineering firsts, including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of SS Great Britain, the first propeller-driven, ocean-going, iron ship, which, when built in 1843, was the largest ship ever built.[4][5]

Brunel set the standard for a well-built railway, using careful surveys to minimise gradients and curves. This necessitated expensive construction techniques, new bridges, new viaducts, and the two-mile-long Box Tunnel. One controversial feature was the wide gauge, a "broad gauge" of 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm), instead of what was later to be known as "standard gauge" of 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm). He astonished Britain by proposing to extend the Great Western Railway westward to North America by building steam-powered, iron-hulled ships. He designed and built three ships that revolutionised naval engineering: the SS Great Western (1838), the SS Great Britain (1843), and the SS Great Eastern (1859).

In 2002, Brunel was placed second in a BBC public poll to determine the "100 Greatest Britons". In 2006, the bicentenary of his birth, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work under the name Brunel 200.[6]

Name

Brunel's given names come from his parents. The first name Isambard was his French-born father's middle name, which was also his father's preferred given name. Isambard is a Norman name of Germanic origin, meaning either "iron-bright" or "iron-axe". The first element comes from isarn meaning iron (or steel). The second element comes from either biart-r (bright, glorious) or from barđa (a broad axe). [7]

His middle name Kingdom was his mother's maiden name.[8]

Other Languages
Simple English: Isambard Kingdom Brunel
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Tiếng Việt: Isambard Kingdom Brunel