Iris (plant)

Iris
Iris germanica (Purple bearded Iris), Wakehurst Place, UK - Diliff.jpg
Iris sibirica
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
L.
Type species
Iris germanica
L.
Subgenera

Hermodactyloides
Iris
Limniris
Nepalensis
Scorpiris
Xiphium

Synonyms

Belamcanda
Hermodactylus
Iridodictyum
Juno
Junopsis
Pardanthopsis
×Pardancanda
Xiphion

Iris is a genus of about 260–300, [1] [2] species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, which is also the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris. Some authors state that the name refers to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. [3] As well as being the scientific name, iris is also very widely used as a common name for all Iris species, as well as some belonging to other closely related genera. A common name for some species is 'flags', while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are widely known as ' junos', particularly in horticulture. It is a popular garden flower.

The often-segregated, monotypic genera Belamcanda (blackberry lily, I. domestica), Hermodactylus (snake's head iris, I. tuberosa), and Pardanthopsis (vesper iris, I. dichotoma) are currently included in Iris.

Three Iris varieties are used in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an example of linear discriminant analysis. [4]

Iris is the national flower of Croatia. [5]

Description

Rhizomes of ornamental irises
Illustration of an iris flower with highlighted parts of the flower

Irises are perennial plants, growing from creeping rhizomes (rhizomatous irises) or, in drier climates, from bulbs (bulbous irises). They have long, erect flowering stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, and flattened or have a circular cross-section. The rhizomatous species usually have 3–10 basal sword-shaped leaves growing in dense clumps. The bulbous species have cylindrical, basal leaves.

Flower

The inflorescences are in the shape of a fan and contain one or more symmetrical six-lobed flowers. These grow on a pedicel or peduncle. The three sepals, which are usually spreading or droop downwards, are referred to as "falls". They expand from their narrow base (the "claw" or "haft" [6] ), into a broader expanded portion ("limb" or "blade" [7]) and can be adorned with veining, lines or dots. In the centre of the blade, some of the rhizomatous irises have a "beard" (a tuft of short upright extensions growing in its midline),. [8] which are the plants filaments. [9]

The three, sometimes reduced, petals stand upright, partly behind the sepal bases. They are called "standards". Some smaller iris species have all six lobes pointing straight outwards, but generally limb and standards differ markedly in appearance. They are united at their base into a floral tube that lies above the ovary (known as an epigynous or inferior ovary). The styles divide towards the apex into petaloid branches; this is significant in pollination.

The iris flower is of interest as an example of the relation between flowering plants and pollinating insects. The shape of the flower and the position of the pollen-receiving and stigmatic surfaces on the outer petals form a landing-stage for a flying insect, which in probing for nectar, will first come into contact with the perianth, then with the stigmatic stamens in one whorled surface which is borne on an ovary formed of three carpels. The shelf-like transverse projection on the inner whorled underside of the stamens is beneath the overarching style arm below the stigma, so that the insect comes in contact with its pollen-covered surface only after passing the stigma; in backing out of the flower it will come in contact only with the non-receptive lower face of the stigma. Thus, an insect bearing pollen from one flower will, in entering a second, deposit the pollen on the stigma; in backing out of a flower, the pollen which it bears will not be rubbed off on the stigma of the same flower. [10]

The iris fruit is a capsule which opens up in three parts to reveal the numerous seeds within. In some species, the seeds bear an aril.

Other Languages
العربية: سوسن
azərbaycanca: Süsən
беларуская: Касач
български: Ирис (растение)
čeština: Kosatec
Deutsch: Schwertlilien
Ελληνικά: Ίρις (βοτανική)
español: Iris (planta)
Esperanto: Irido
euskara: Lirio
فارسی: زنبق
galego: Lirio
한국어: 붓꽃속
Հայերեն: Հիրիկ
hornjoserbsce: Škleńčica
hrvatski: Perunika
Ido: Irido
íslenska: Íris (blóm)
italiano: Iris (botanica)
עברית: אירוס
ქართული: ზამბახი
қазақша: Құртқашаш
Kurdî: Pizîlaq
Кыргызча: Чекилдек (Iris)
lietuvių: Vilkdalgis
magyar: Nőszirom
Nederlands: Lis (geslacht)
日本語: アヤメ属
Nordfriisk: Iris
polski: Kosaciec
português: Iris (género)
română: Stânjenel
Runa Simi: Hamachi
Simple English: Iris (plant)
slovenščina: Perunika
српски / srpski: Перунике
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Perunika
svenska: Irissläktet
тоҷикӣ: Савсан
українська: Півники
Tiếng Việt: Chi Diên vĩ
žemaitėška: Vėlkdalgīs
中文: 鸢尾属