Iraq

Republic of Iraq
  • جمهورية العراق ( Arabic)
  • کۆماری عێراق ( Kurdish)
Motto: الله أكبر ( Arabic)
" Allahu Akbar( transliteration)
" God is the Greatest"
Anthem: " Mawtini"
"موطني"
"My Homeland"
Location of Iraq
Location of Iraq
Capital
and largest city
Baghdad
33°20′N 44°26′E / 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333; 44.433
Official languages
Religion Islam
Demonym Iraqi
Government Federal parliamentary republic
•  President
Fuad Masum
Haider al-Abadi
Legislature Council of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
•  Kingdom
3 October 1932 (1932-10-03)
14 July 1958
15 October 2005
Area
• Total
437,072 km2 (168,754 sq mi) ( 58th)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2016 estimate
37,202,572 [1] ( 36th)
• Density
82.7/km2 (214.2/sq mi) ( 125th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$612 billion [2] ( 34th)
• Per capita
$16,551 [2] ( 71st)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Total
$240.006 billion [2] ( 47th)
• Per capita
$6,491 [2] ( 88th)
Gini (2012) 29.5 [3]
low
HDI (2014) Increase 0.654 [4]
medium ·  121st
Currency Iraqi dinar ( IQD)
Time zone AST ( UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +964
ISO 3166 code IQ
Internet TLD .iq
  1. Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 (1st).

Iraq ( k/, k/ ( About this sound  listen) or k/; Arabic: العراقal-‘Irāq; Kurdish: عێراقEraq), officially known as the Republic of Iraq ( Arabic: جُمُهورية العِراق About this sound  Jumhūrīyyat al-‘Irāq; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراقKomari Eraq), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. [5] Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. [6] Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.

The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian empires. It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires. [7]

Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921, and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, [8] but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west. It has since been largely defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017.

Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF. It is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 19 governorates (provinces) and one autonomous region ( Iraqi Kurdistan). The country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in pre-Islamic times and is known for its poets. Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets.

Name

The Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk (Biblical Hebrew Erech) and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. [9] [10] An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "deeply rooted, well-watered; fertile". [11]

During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī ("Arabian Iraq") for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī ("Foreign Iraq"), [12] for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran. [13] The term historically included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. [14] Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was commonly used to describe Iraq. [15]

The term Sawad was also used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. [16]

The Arabic pronunciation is [ʕiˈrɑːq]. In English, it is either k/ (the only pronunciation listed in the Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary) or k/ (listed first by Random House Dictionary. The pronunciation k/ is frequently heard in US media.

In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq" (Jumhūrīyyat al-‘Irāq).

Other Languages
Acèh: Irak
Адыгэбзэ: Иракъ
адыгабзэ: Ирак
Afrikaans: Irak
Akan: Iraq
Alemannisch: Irak
አማርኛ: ኢራቅ
Ænglisc: Irac
العربية: العراق
aragonés: Iraq
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܥܝܪܐܩ
armãneashti: Irac
arpetan: Iraq
অসমীয়া: ইৰাক
asturianu: Iraq
Avañe'ẽ: Irake
авар: ГIиракъ
azərbaycanca: İraq
تۆرکجه: عراق
বাংলা: ইরাক
Bân-lâm-gú: Iraq
башҡортса: Ираҡ
беларуская: Ірак
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ірак
भोजपुरी: ईराक
Bikol Central: Iraq
български: Ирак
Boarisch: Irak
བོད་ཡིག: ཡི་ལའ་ཁོ།
bosanski: Irak
brezhoneg: Irak
буряад: Ирак
català: Iraq
Чӑвашла: Ирак
Cebuano: Iraq
čeština: Irák
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Iraq
chiShona: Iraq
chiTumbuka: Iraq
Cymraeg: Irac
dansk: Irak
davvisámegiella: Irak
Deitsch: Iraek
Deutsch: Irak
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޢިރާޤު
dolnoserbski: Irak
eesti: Iraak
Ελληνικά: Ιράκ
español: Irak
Esperanto: Irako
estremeñu: Iraq
euskara: Irak
فارسی: عراق
Fiji Hindi: Iraq
føroyskt: Irak
français: Irak
Frysk: Irak
Gaeilge: An Iaráic
Gaelg: Yn Earack
Gagauz: Irak
Gàidhlig: Ioràc
galego: Iraq
贛語: 伊拉克
Gĩkũyũ: Iraq
ગુજરાતી: ઈરાક
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इराक
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Iraq
한국어: 이라크
Hausa: Irak
Hawaiʻi: ‘Ilaka
Հայերեն: Իրաք
हिन्दी: इराक़
hornjoserbsce: Irak
hrvatski: Irak
Ido: Irak
Ilokano: Irak
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইরাক
Bahasa Indonesia: Irak
interlingua: Irak
Interlingue: Irak
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᕉᒃ
Ирон: Ирак
isiZulu: I-Iraki
íslenska: Írak
italiano: Iraq
עברית: עיראק
Basa Jawa: Irak
kalaallisut: Iraq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇರಾಕ್
Kapampangan: Irak
ქართული: ერაყი
kaszëbsczi: Irak
қазақша: Ирак
kernowek: Irak
Kinyarwanda: Irake
Kiswahili: Iraq
коми: Ирак
Kongo: Iraq
Kreyòl ayisyen: Irak
Kurdî: Iraq
Кыргызча: Ырак
Ladino: Irak
лезги: Ирак
لۊری شومالی: عراق
Latina: Iraca
latviešu: Irāka
Lëtzebuergesch: Irak
lietuvių: Irakas
Ligure: Iraq
Limburgs: Irak
lingála: Irak
Livvinkarjala: Irak
la .lojban.: raksygu'e
lumbaart: Irak
magyar: Irak
मैथिली: इराक
македонски: Ирак
Malagasy: Iraka
മലയാളം: ഇറാഖ്‌
Malti: Iraq
Māori: Īrāki
मराठी: इराक
მარგალური: ერაყი
مصرى: العراق
مازِرونی: عراق
Bahasa Melayu: Iraq
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iraq
мокшень: Ирак
монгол: Ирак
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီရတ်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Irak
Nederlands: Irak
नेपाली: ईराक
नेपाल भाषा: इराक
日本語: イラク
нохчийн: Ӏиракъ
Nordfriisk: Iraak
Norfuk / Pitkern: Eraak
norsk: Irak
norsk nynorsk: Irak
Novial: Irak
occitan: Iraq
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇରାକ
Oromoo: Iraaq
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Iroq
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਰਾਕ
पालि: ईराक
پنجابی: عراق
Papiamentu: Irak
پښتو: عراق
Patois: Irak
Picard: Irak
Piemontèis: Irak
Tok Pisin: Irak
Plattdüütsch: Irak
polski: Irak
português: Iraque
Qaraqalpaqsha: İrak
qırımtatarca: Iraq
română: Irak
Runa Simi: Iraq
русиньскый: Ірак
русский: Ирак
саха тыла: Ираак
संस्कृतम्: इराक्
sardu: Iraq
Scots: Iraq
Seeltersk: Irak
shqip: Iraku
sicilianu: Iraq
Simple English: Iraq
سنڌي: عراق
SiSwati: I-Irakhi
slovenčina: Irak
slovenščina: Irak
ślůnski: Irak
Soomaaliga: Ciraaq
کوردی: عێراق
српски / srpski: Ирак
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Irak
Basa Sunda: Irak
suomi: Irak
svenska: Irak
Tagalog: Iraq
தமிழ்: ஈராக்கு
Taqbaylit: Ɛiraq
tarandíne: Iraq
татарча/tatarça: Гыйрак
తెలుగు: ఇరాక్
tetun: Irake
тоҷикӣ: Ироқ
Türkçe: Irak
Türkmençe: Yrak
Twi: Irak
удмурт: Ирак
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Irak
українська: Ірак
اردو: عراق
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىراق
Vahcuengh: Iraq
vèneto: Iraq
vepsän kel’: Irak
Tiếng Việt: Iraq
Volapük: Lirakän
Võro: Iraak
walon: Irak
文言: 伊拉克
West-Vlams: Irak
Winaray: Irak
Wolof: Iraak
吴语: 伊拉克
ייִדיש: איראק
Yorùbá: Irak
粵語: 伊拉克
Zazaki: İraq
Zeêuws: Irak
žemaitėška: Iraks
中文: 伊拉克
डोटेली: इराक
Kabɩyɛ: Irakɩ (Irak)