Iraq ( /, / ( or ) listen /; : Arabic العراق ; al-‘Irāq : Kurdish عێراق ), officially known as the Eraq Republic of Iraq ( : Arabic جُمُهورية العِراق ; Jumhūrīyyat al-‘Irāq : Kurdish کۆماری عێراق ), is a country in Komari Eraq , bordered by Western Asia to the north, Turkey to the east, Iran to the southeast, Kuwait to the south, Saudi Arabia to the southwest and Jordan to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Syria . Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Baghdad , Arabs , Kurds , Assyrians , Turkmen , Shabakis , Yazidis , Armenians , Mandeans and Circassians . Kawliya Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are  , with Muslims , Christianity , Yarsan and Yezidism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Mandeanism and Arabic . Kurdish
Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern
and encompasses the Persian Gulf , the northwestern end of the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain and the eastern part of the Zagros mountain range . Syrian Desert Two major rivers, the  and Tigris , run south through Iraq and into the Euphrates near the Shatt al-Arab . These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. Persian Gulf
The region between the
, historically known as Tigris and Euphrates rivers , is often referred to as the Mesopotamia . It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably cradle of civilisation , from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the Uruk . Iraq was the centre of the 6th millennium BC , Akkadian , Sumerian and Assyrian empires. It was also part of the Babylonian , Median , Achaemenid , Hellenistic , Parthian , Sassanid , Roman , Rashidun , Umayyad , Abbasid , Ayyubid , Mongol , Safavid and Afsharid empires. Ottoman 
The country today known as Iraq was a region of the
until the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century. It was made up of three provinces, called partition of the Ottoman Empire in the vilayets : Ottoman language , Mosul Vilayet , and Baghdad Vilayet . In April 1920 the Basra Vilayet was created under the authority of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia . A British-backed monarchy joining these League of Nations vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under . Faisal I of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq and the the monarchy was overthrown created. Iraq was controlled by the Iraqi Republic from Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party . After 1968 until 2003 by the United States and an invasion in 2003, its allies 's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party Saddam Hussein . The parliamentary elections were held in 2005 ended in 2011, US presence in Iraq but the  continued and intensified as fighters from the Iraqi insurgency spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself Syrian Civil War , which took large parts of the north and west. It has since been largely defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of ISIL continue. A Iraqi Kurdistan about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, referendum Iraqi Prime Minister declared victory over ISIL after the group lost Haider al-Abadi in Iraq. its territory 
Iraq is a founding member of the
as well as of the UN , Arab League , OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement . It is a IMF federal parliamentary consisting of republic and one autonomous region ( 19 governorates (provinces) ). The country's official religion is Iraqi Kurdistan . Islam , Iraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in pre-Islamic times and is known for its poets. Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Culturally , some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and Arab world . carpets
The name Arabic العراق has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the al-ʿIrāq city of Sumerian (Biblical Hebrew Uruk Erech) and is thus ultimately of origin, as Sumerian Uruk was the name for the Sumerian city of Akkadian , containing the Sumerian word for "city", Urug . UR 
An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "deeply rooted, well-watered;  ". fertile
During the medieval period, there was a region called
ʿIrāq ʿArabī ("Arabian Iraq") for Lower and Mesopotamia ("Foreign Iraq"), ʿIrāq ʿajamī for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.  The term historically included the plain south of the  and did not include the northernmost and Hamrin Mountains parts of the modern territory of Iraq. westernmost Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term  Eyraca Arabic was commonly used to describe Iraq.
was also used in early Islamic times for the region of the Sawad of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, alluvial plain عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the ", viz. at the south and east of the escarpment Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. Jazira
is Arabic pronunciation . In English, it is either [ʕiˈrɑːq] / (the only pronunciation listed in the ) or Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary / (listed first by . The pronunciation Random House Dictionary / is frequently heard in US media.
In accordance with the 2005
, the official name of the state is the Constitution "Republic of Iraq" ( Jumhūrīyyat al-‘Irāq).
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