Ipswich

Ipswich

Borough of Ipswich
Top down: Christchurch Mansion, Willis Building, water tower, Ipswich Waterfront, Ipswich Town Centre, Sir Bobby Robson Bridge
Ipswich and surrounding area
Ipswich and surrounding area
Ipswich within Suffolk and England
Ipswich within Suffolk and England
Coordinates: 52°3′34″N 1°9′20″E / 52°3′34″N 1°9′20″E / 52.05944; 1.15556
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent CountryEngland
RegionEast Anglia
CountySuffolk
BoroughIpswich
Government
 • TypeLeader and Cabinet
 • MPsSandy Martin
Dan Poulter
Area
 • Town and Borough15.22 sq mi (39.42 km2)
Population
(2011)
 • Town and BoroughRanked 157th
133,384
 • Density9,070/sq mi (3,503/km2)
 • Urban
180,000 (approx)
 • Ethnicity
90.5% White
3.9% S.Asian
2.1% Black
1.1% Chinese or Other
2.4% Mixed Race
Postcode
Area code(s)01473
ONS code42UD

Ipswich (/ (About this soundlisten)) is the county town of Suffolk, England, located in East Anglia about 66 miles (106 km) north east of London. The town has been continuously occupied since the Saxon period,[1] and its port has been one of England's most important for the whole of its history.[2]

Ipswich is a non-metropolitan district. The urban development of Ipswich overspills the borough boundaries significantly, with 75% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2011 Census, when it was the fourth-largest urban area in the United Kingdom's East of England region, and the 42nd-largest urban area in England and Wales.[3] In 2011, the town of Ipswich was found to have a population of 133,384,[4][5] while the Ipswich built-up area is estimated to have a population of approximately 180,000 in 2011.[3]

The modern name is derived from the medieval name Gippeswic, probably taken either from an Old Saxon personal name or from an earlier name of the Orwell estuary (although unrelated to the name of the River Gipping).[6] It has also been known as Gyppewicus and Yppswyche.[1]

History

Roman settlement

Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns,[7][8] if not the oldest. At its core Ipswich was and is the oldest still continuing town to have been established and developed by the English.[9] It has an unbroken history of community as a town since early Anglo-Saxon times. Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell and Gipping.[citation needed] A large Roman fort, part of the coastal defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe (13 miles, 21 km),[10] and the largest Roman villa in Suffolk (possibly an administrative complex) stood at Castle Hill (north-west Ipswich).[11]

Middle Ages

The modern town took shape in Anglo-Saxon times (7th–8th centuries) around Ipswich dock. As the coastal states of north-western Europe emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, essential North Sea trade and communication between eastern Britain and the continent (especially to Scandinavia, and through the Rhine) passed through the former Roman ports of London (serving the kingdoms of Mercia, the East Saxons, Kent) and York (Eoforwic) (serving the Kingdom of Northumbria).

Gipeswic (also in other spellings such as Gippeswich)[12] arose as the equivalent to these, serving the Kingdom of East Anglia,[13] its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English (616–624). The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby (9 miles, 14.5 km) is probably his grave. The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall and Sutton Hoo treasures. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons, jewellery and other artefacts.

Ancient House is decorated with a particularly fine example of pargeting.
Timber-frame buildings in St Nicholas Street

The seventh-century town was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times. Their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years.[14][15] With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance.[16] Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets.

After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule. The earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English.[17][18] They were unsuccessful. The town operated a mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215.[19] The abbreviation Gipes appears on the coins.

King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the medieval foundations of its modern civil government.[20][21] Thenceforth Ipswich strongly maintained its jurisdiction over the so-called Liberty, a region extending over about 35 square kilometres centred on the town.[22]

In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, trading Suffolk cloth with the Continent.[citation needed] Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories (St Peter and St Paul, and Holy Trinity, both mid-12th century[23]), and those of the Ipswich Greyfriars (Franciscans, before 1298), Ipswich Whitefriars (Carmelites founded 1278–79) and Ipswich Blackfriars (Dominicans, before 1263), stood in medieval Ipswich. The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama (Kynge Johan, c.1538).[24] There were also several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199.

During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, and attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon.[25][26] At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.[27]

Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury Tales. Thomas Wolsey, the future cardinal, was born in Ipswich about 1475 as the son of a wealthy landowner. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, which was for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School.[28] He remains one of the town's most famed figures.

Neptune Marina Quay, Ipswich

Early-modern era

During the 14th to 17th centuries Ipswich was a kontor for the Hanseatic League, the port being used for imports and exports to the Baltic.

In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands in Christchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration to New England. This was encouraged by the Town Lecturer, Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, Massachusetts, where a promontory was named 'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-west Ipswich, UK. Ipswich was also one of the main ports of embarkation for puritans leaving other East Anglian towns and villages for the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the 1630s and what has become known as the Great Migration.[29]

The painter Thomas Gainsborough lived and worked in Ipswich. In 1835, Charles Dickens stayed in Ipswich and used it as a setting for scenes in his novel The Pickwick Papers. The hotel where he resided first opened in 1518; it was then known as The Tavern and later became known as the Great White Horse Hotel. Dickens made the hotel famous in chapter XXII of The Pickwick Papers, vividly describing the hotel's meandering corridors and stairs. The hotel now houses a branch of Cotswolds

In 1797 Lord and Lady Nelson moved to Ipswich, and in 1800 Lord Nelson was appointed High Steward of Ipswich.

19th and 20th centuries

In 1824 Dr George Birkbeck, with support from several local businessmen, founded one of the first Ipswich Institute reading room and library. The building, at 15 Tavern Street, has been the site of the library since 1836.[citation needed]

In the mid-19th century coprolite (fossilised animal dung) was discovered; the material was mined and then dissolved in acid, the resulting mixture forming the basis of Fisons fertiliser business.[30]

The first unit of the Queensland Volunteer Rifle Brigade was formed in March 1860 by one of Ipswich's pioneers, Edred Heady Blunt. An Imperial commissioned soldier by the name of Donald Bethune, instructed the volunteers who were the country's sole defence force at this time.[31][32][33]

The Tolly Cobbold brewery, built in the 18th century and rebuilt in 1894–96, is one of the finest Victorian breweries in the UK. There was a Cobbold brewery in the town from 1746 until 2002 when Ridley's Breweries took Tolly Cobbold over.[34] Felix Thornley Cobbold presented Christchurch Mansion to the town in 1896. Smaller breweries include St Jude's Brewery, situated in an 18th-century coach-house near the town centre.

Ipswich was subject to bombing by German Zeppelins during World War I but the greatest damage by far occurred during the German bombing raids of World War II. The area in and around the docks were especially devastated. Eighty civilians died by enemy action in the Ipswich county borough area during the latter war.[35] The last bombs to fall on Ipswich landed on Seymour Road at 2 a.m. on 2 March 1945, killing 9 people and destroying 6 houses.[36]

Former stables,[37] reflected in the glass panels of the Willis Building

The Willis Building is a glass-clad building owned by Willis. Designed by Norman Foster, the building dates from 1974, when it was known as the Willis Faber & Dumas building. It became the youngest grade I listed building in Britain in 1991, being at the time one of only two listed buildings to be less than 30 years old.[38]

In September 1993 Ipswich and Arras, Nord Pas-de-Calais, France, became twin towns, and a square in the new Buttermarket development was named Arras Square to mark the relationship.[39]

21st century

Ipswich has undergone extensive rebuilding and a gentrification, principally around the waterfront. Though this has turned a former industrial dock area into an emerging residential and commercial centre, its completion was at the expense of much of the town's industrial and maritime heritage and in spite of efforts made by a local The Ipswich Society. Much of this development is residential, marketed to affluent DINKs. As such, some[who?] have considered it incompatible with Ipswich's existing socio-economic mix.

Ipswich market day

On 13 March 2007 Ipswich was awarded the cleanest town award.[40]

Ipswich remains a 'town' despite a few attempts at winning 'city' status.[41] It does not have a cathedral, so the Bishop of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich is based at Bury St Edmunds, the former county town of West Suffolk. It does, however, now have a university, The University of Suffolk.[42]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Ipswich
العربية: إبسوتش
asturianu: Ipswich
беларуская: Іпсуіч (Англія)
български: Ипсуич
brezhoneg: Ipswich
català: Ipswich
čeština: Ipswich
dansk: Ipswich
Deutsch: Ipswich
eesti: Ipswich
español: Ipswich
Esperanto: Ipswich
euskara: Ipswich
فارسی: ایپسوییچ
français: Ipswich
Gaeilge: Ipswich
한국어: 입스위치
հայերեն: Իպսուիչ
Bahasa Indonesia: Ipswich
íslenska: Ipswich
italiano: Ipswich
עברית: איפסוויץ'
ქართული: იფსუიჩი
Kiswahili: Ipswich
Latina: Gippevicum
lietuvių: Ipsvičas
lumbaart: Ipswich
македонски: Ипсвич
Bahasa Melayu: Ipswich
Nederlands: Ipswich (Engeland)
norsk: Ipswich
norsk nynorsk: Ipswich
polski: Ipswich
português: Ipswich
română: Ipswich
Runa Simi: Ipswich
Scots: Ipswich
Simple English: Ipswich
slovenčina: Ipswich
ślůnski: Ipswich
српски / srpski: Ипсвич
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ipswich
suomi: Ipswich
svenska: Ipswich
Türkçe: Ipswich
українська: Іпсвіч (Англія)
اردو: اپسوئچ
Volapük: Ipswich
Winaray: Ipswich
粵語: 葉士域治