Silent film era
In this era intertitles were always called "subtitles" and often had Art Deco motifs. They were a mainstay of silent films once the films became of sufficient length and detail to necessitate dialogue and/or narration to make sense of the enacted or documented events. The British Film Catalogue credits the 1898 film Our New General Servant by Robert W. Paul as the first British film to use intertitles. Film scholar Kamilla Elliott identifies another early use of intertitles in the 1901 British film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost. The first Academy Awards presentation in 1929 included an award for "Best Writing - Title Cards" that went to Joseph W. Farnham for the films Fair Co-Ed, Laugh, Clown, Laugh, and Telling the World. The award was never given again, as intertitles went out of common use due to the introduction of "talkies".