International Workers' Day

International Workers' Day
1.Mai 2013 (8697603319).jpg
Official nameInternational Workers' Day
Also calledMay Day
CelebrationsVarious, depending on the country; mostly parades, marches, barbecues
Date1 May
Next time1 May 2020 (2020-05-01)
FrequencyAnnual
Related to

International Workers' Day, also known as Workers' Day, Labour Day in some countries[1][2] and often referred to as May Day,[3][4] is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.[5][6]

The date was chosen by a pan-national organization of socialist and communist political parties to commemorate the Haymarket affair, which occurred in Chicago on 4 May 1886.[6] The 1904 Sixth Conference of the Second International, called on "all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace."[7]

The first of May is a national, public holiday in many countries across the world, in most cases as "Labour Day", "International Workers' Day" or some similar name – although some countries celebrate a Labour Day on other dates significant to them, such as the United States and Canada, which celebrate Labor Day on the first Monday of September.

Origin

French magazine cover celebrating May Day, 1906. Depicts the struggle for the eight-hour workday and the red rose and color of socialism.

Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labour movements grew, a variety of days were chosen by trade unionists as a day to celebrate labour. 1 May was chosen to be International Workers' Day to commemorate the 1886 Haymarket affair in Chicago.[8] In that year beginning on 1 May, there was a general strike for the eight-hour workday. On 4 May, the police acted to disperse a public assembly in support of the strike when an unidentified person threw a bomb. The police responded by firing on the workers. The event led to the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; sixty police officers were injured, as were an unknown number of civilians.[9] Hundreds of labour leaders and sympathizers were later rounded-up and four were executed by hanging, after a trial that was seen as a miscarriage of justice.[10][nb 1] The following day on 5 May in Milwaukee Wisconsin, the state militia fired on a crowd of strikers killing seven, including a schoolboy and a man feeding chickens in his yard.[12]

In 1889, a meeting in Paris was held by the first congress of the Second International, following a proposal by Raymond Lavigne that called for international demonstrations on the 1890 anniversary of the Chicago protests.[6] May Day was formally recognized as an annual event at the International's second congress in 1891.[citation needed] Subsequently, the May Day riots of 1894 occurred. The International Socialist Congress, Amsterdam 1904 called on "all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace."[7] The congress made it "mandatory upon the proletarian organisations of all countries to stop work on 1 May, wherever it is possible without injury to the workers."[7]

In the United States and Canada, a September holiday, called Labor or Labour Day, was first proposed in the 1880s. In 1882, Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed a Labor Day holiday on the first Monday of September[nb 2] while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union (CLU) of New York.[13] Others argue that it was first proposed by Peter J. McGuire of the American Federation of Labor in May 1882,[14] after witnessing the annual labour festival held in Toronto, Canada.[15] In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty US states officially celebrated Labor Day.[14] Thus by 1887 in North America, Labour Day was an established, official holiday but in September,[16] not on 1 May.

A 1 May rally in Bucharest in 1967

May Day has been a focal point for demonstrations by various socialist, communist and anarchist groups since the Second International. May Day is one of the most important holidays in communist countries such as the North Korea, Cuba and the former Soviet Union countries. May Day celebrations in these countries typically feature elaborate workforce parades, including displays of military hardware and soldiers.

In 1955, the Catholic Church dedicated 1 May to "Saint Joseph the Worker". Saint Joseph is the patron saint of workers and craftsmen, among others.[17]

During the Cold War, May Day became the occasion for large military parades in Red Square by the Soviet Union and attended by the top leaders of the Kremlin, especially the Politburo, atop Lenin's Mausoleum. It became an enduring symbol of that period.

Today, the majority of countries around the world celebrate a workers' day on 1 May.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Werkersdag
Alemannisch: Erster Mai
Avañe'ẽ: Mba'apohára Ára
Bân-lâm-gú: Lô-tōng-cheh
беларуская: Першага мая
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Першага траўня
čeština: Svátek práce
Deutsch: Erster Mai
한국어: 노동절
հայերեն: Մայիսի 1 (տոն)
Bahasa Indonesia: Hari Buruh
Interlingue: Die del labore
íslenska: Fyrsti maí
עברית: אחד במאי
Latina: Dies laboris
latviešu: Darba svētki
Lëtzebuergesch: Éischte Mee
മലയാളം: മേയ്‌ ദിനം
Bahasa Melayu: Hari Pekerja
Nederlands: Dag van de Arbeid
日本語: メーデー
norsk nynorsk: Første mai
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମଇ ଦିବସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xalqaro mehnatkashlar kuni
پنجابی: مئی دن
português: Dia do Trabalhador
română: Ziua Muncii
Simple English: May Day
slovenčina: Sviatok práce
slovenščina: Praznik dela
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Međunarodni praznik rada
suomi: Vappu
svenska: Första maj
தமிழ்: மே நாள்
vepsän kel’: Keväden i radon päiv
Zazaki: 1ê Gulane