Integrated Authority File

Integrated Authority File
Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012 Opera.png
AcronymGND Edit this at Wikidata

The Integrated Authority File (German: Gemeinsame Normdatei; also known as the Universal Authority File) or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives and museums. The GND is managed by the German National Library (German: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek; DNB) in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero (CC0) licence.[1]

The GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format.[2]

The Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued:

At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.

Types of GND high-level entities

There are seven main types of GND entities:[3]

TypGerman (official)English (translation)
pPerson (individualisiert)person (individualised)
nName (nicht individualisiert)name (not individualised)
kKörperschaftcorporate body
sSachbegrifftopical term
gGeografikumgeographical place name

See also


  1. ^ Edit this at Wikidata Integrated Authority File (GND)
  2. ^ GND Ontology – Namespace Document Archived 2013-01-03 at the Wayback Machine, version 2012-06-30.
  3. ^ Entitätencodierung: Vergaberichtlinien (short lists – old and new versions)

External links

Other Languages
беларуская: Gemeinsame Normdatei
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Gemeinsame Normdatei
Ελληνικά: Gemeinsame Normdatei
հայերեն: Gemeinsame Normdatei
Bahasa Indonesia: Gemeinsame Normdatei
norsk nynorsk: Gemeinsame Normdatei
Plattdüütsch: Gemeensame Normdatei
русский: Gemeinsame Normdatei
slovenščina: Gemeinsame Normdatei
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: GND
українська: Gemeinsame Normdatei
Tiếng Việt: Gemeinsame Normdatei