Information Age

The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historic period in the 21st century characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.[citation needed] The onset of the Information Age can be associated with the invention of the transistor,[1] particularly the MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor),[2][3] which revolutionized modern technology[1] and became the fundamental building block of digital electronics in the information age.[2][3]

According to the UN Public Administration Network, the Information Age formed by capitalizing on computer microminiaturization advances.[4] This evolution of technology in daily life and social organization has led to the modernization of information and communication processes becoming the driving force of social evolution.[5][need quotation to verify]

Progression

Rings of time showing some important dates in Information Age (Digital Revolution) from 1968 to 2017

Library expansion

Library expansion was calculated in 1945 by Fremont Rider to double in capacity every 16 years if sufficient space were made available.[6] He advocated replacing bulky, decaying printed works with miniaturized microform analog photographs, which could be duplicated on-demand for library patrons or other institutions. He did not foresee the digital technology that would follow decades later to replace analog microform with digital imaging, storage, and transmission media. Automated, potentially lossless digital technologies allowed vast increases in the rapidity of information growth. Moore's law, which was formulated around 1965, calculated that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years.[7]

The proliferation of the smaller and less expensive personal computers and improvements in computing power by the early 1980s resulted in sudden access to and the ability to share and store information for increasing numbers of workers. Connectivity between computers within companies led to the ability of workers at different levels to access greater amounts of information.

Information storage

The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, and to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007. This is the informational equivalent to less than one 730-MB CD-ROM per person in 1986 (539 MB per person), roughly 4 CD-ROM per person of 1993, 12 CD-ROM per person in the year 2000, and almost 61 CD-ROM per person in 2007.[8] It is estimated that the world's capacity to store information has reached 5 zettabytes in 2014.[9] This is the informational equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun.

Exponential growth of data storage

The amount of digital data stored appears to be growing approximately exponentially, reminiscent of Moore's law. The amount of storage space available appears to be growing approximately exponentially (Kryder's Law).[10][11][12][13][14]

Information transmission

The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 715 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1993, 1.2 (optimally compressed) zettabytes in 2000, and 1.9 zettabytes in 2007 (this is the information equivalent of 174 newspapers per person per day).[8] The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, and 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007 (this is the information equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day).[8] In the 1990s, the spread of the Internet caused a sudden leap in access to and ability to share information in businesses and homes globally. Technology was developing so quickly that a computer costing $3000 in 1997 would cost $2000 two years later and $1000 the following year.

Computation

The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew from 3.0 × 108 MIPS in 1986, to 4.4 × 109 MIPS in 1993, 2.9 × 1011 MIPS in 2000 to 6.4 × 1012 MIPS in 2007.[8] An article in the recognized Journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution reports that by now digital technology "has vastly exceeded the cognitive capacity of any single human being and has done so a decade earlier than predicted. In terms of capacity, there are two measures of importance: the number of operations a system can perform and the amount of information that can be stored. The number of synaptic operations per second in a human brain has been estimated to lie between 10^15 and 10^17. While this number is impressive, even in 2007 humanity's general-purpose computers were capable of performing well over 10^18 instructions per second. Estimates suggest that the storage capacity of an individual human brain is about 10^12 bytes. On a per capita basis, this is matched by current digital storage (5x10^21 bytes per 7.2x10^9 people)".[9]

Other Languages
한국어: 정보화시대
हिन्दी: सूचना युग
íslenska: Stafræn menning
日本語: 情報化時代
Simple English: Information Age
slovenščina: Informacijska doba
српски / srpski: Информатичко доба
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Informatičko doba
українська: Інформаційна ера
Tiếng Việt: Thời đại Thông tin
中文: 信息时代