As of 2019, Indonesians make up 3.5% of world total population, and Indonesia is the fourth most populous country after China, India and the United States.
Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1967, for the decade ending in 2010, Indonesia's population growth was 1.49 percent. At that rate, Indonesia's population is projected to surpass the present population of the United States and would - if the current US population did not rise - become the world's third biggest after China and India by 2043. The family planning already revitalised based on the 1967 program to avoid Indonesia becoming the world's third most populous country.
With a population of 150 million, Java is home to 51 percent of the Indonesian population, and is the most populous island on Earth. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the centre of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally.
Other major island of Indonesia are Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua that took other 49 percent of Indonesian population. There are also other small populated island(s) such as Bali, Bangka, Madura, Nias, Maluku, Lesser Sunda Islands, Riau Islands and others.
Indonesian people attending a
There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry.
The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up nearly 52% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program. The Sundanese, Malay, and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua, speak Papuan languages. The Chinese Indonesians population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien and Hakka.
The classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some cases unclear due to migrations, cultural and linguistic influences; for example some may consider Bantenese and Cirebonese to be members of Javanese people, however some others argue that they are different ethnic groups altogether since they have their own distinct dialects. This is the same case with Baduy people that share many cultural similarities with the Sundanese people. An example of hybrid ethnicity is the Betawi people, descended not only from marriages between different peoples in Indonesia but also with foreign origin like Arab, Chinese and Indian migrants since the era of colonial Batavia (Jakarta).