Indonesia (/ (
NEE-zhə or /
[ɪndonesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia
[rɛpublik ɪndonesia]), is a
sovereign state and
transcontinental country located mainly in
Southeast Asia, with some territories in
Oceania. Situated between the
Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest
island country, with more than
thirteen thousand islands.
 At 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358
square miles), Indonesia is the world's 14th largest country in terms of land area and the 7th largest in terms of combined sea and land area.
 With over 261 million people, it is the world's
4th most populous country as well as the most populous
Java, the world's
most populous island,
 contains more than half of the country's population.
Indonesia's republican form of government includes an elected
president. Indonesia has
34 provinces, of which five have Special status. Its capital is
Jakarta, which is the second
most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with
Papua New Guinea,
East Timor, and the
eastern part of
Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
 The country has abundant natural resources like
Agriculture mainly produces
 Indonesia's major trading partners are
China and neighbours Singapore, Malaysia and Australia.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when
Srivijaya and then later
Majapahit traded with Chinese dynasties and Indian kingdoms. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries
Buddhist kingdoms flourished.
Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources.
Muslim traders and
Sufi scholars brought the now-dominant
 while European powers brought
Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of
Maluku during the
Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of
Dutch colonialism starting from
Batavia, and eventually all of the archipelago including
Western New Guinea, at times interrupted by
French and British rule, Indonesia
secured its independence after
World War II.
Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native
linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the
Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country.
Indonesia's economy is the world's
16th largest by nominal GDP and the
7th largest by GDP at
PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the
G20 major economies. It is also a founding member of
Association of Southeast Asian Nations,
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation,
East Asia Summit,
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.