Indonesia

Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia  ( Indonesian)
Anthem:  Indonesia Raya
"Great Indonesia"

Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green
Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green
Capital
and largest city
Jakarta
6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / -6.1750; 106.8283
Official language
and national language
Indonesian
Spoken languages [3]
Ethnic groups (2010) Javanese 40.22%
Sundanese 15.5%
and others 44.28% [4]
Religion (2010)
Demonym Indonesian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
•  President
Joko Widodo
Jusuf Kalla
Oesman Sapta Odang
Setya Novanto
Muhammad Hatta Ali
Arief Hidayat
Legislature People's Consultative Assembly
Regional Representative Council
People's Representative Council
Formation
2nd century
13th century
20 March 1602
1 January 1800
9 March 1942
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
• USI dissolved
17 August 1950
Area
•  Land
1,904,569 [9] km2 (735,358 sq mi) ( 14th)
•  Water (%)
4.85
Population
• 2016 estimate
261,115,456 [10]
• 2010 census
237.42 million [11] ( 4th)
• Density
124.66/km2 (322.9/sq mi) ( 84th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$3.257 trillion [11] ( 7th)
• Per capita
$12,432 [11] ( 96th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$1.020 trillion [11] ( 16th)
• Per capita
$3,895 [11] ( 114th)
Gini (2016) Positive decrease 39.0 [12]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.689 [13]
medium ·  113th
Currency Indonesian rupiah (Rp) ( IDR)
Time zone various ( UTC+7 to +9)
Date format DD/MM/YYYY
Drives on the left
Calling code +62
ISO 3166 code ID
Internet TLD .id

Indonesia ( ə/ ( About this sound  listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə or ə/ IN-doh-NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndonesia]),[ lacks stress] officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [rɛpublik ɪndonesia]),[ lacks stress] is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. [14] At 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), Indonesia is the world's 14th-largest country in terms of land area and world's 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area. [15] It has an estimated population of over 261 million people and is the world's fourth most populous country, the most populous Austronesian nation, as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. [16] The world's most populous island, Java, contains more than half of the country's population.

Indonesia's republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. Its capital is Jakarta, which is the second most populous city in the world; other large urban agglomerations include Bandung, Surabaya and Medan. [17] The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's third highest level of biodiversity. [18] The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. [19] Indonesia's major trading partners are Japan, the United States, China and neighbours Singapore, Malaysia and Australia.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought the now-dominant Islam, [20] [21] while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism starting from Amboina and Batavia, and eventually all of the archipelago including Timor and Western New Guinea, at times interrupted by Portuguese, French and British rule, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. The population is unevenly spread throughout the islands within a variety of habitats and levels of development, ranging from the megalopolis of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua. [22] A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, " Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organizations, including the UN, [b] WTO, IMF and G20 major economies. It is also a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Etymology

The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós (Ἰνδός) and the word nèsos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands". [23] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. [24] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". [25] In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. [26] [27] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia; they preferred Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde. [28]

After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. [28] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau. [24]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Индонезиэ
адыгабзэ: Индонезие
Afrikaans: Indonesië
Akan: Indonesia
Alemannisch: Indonesien
አማርኛ: ኢንዶኔዥያ
Ænglisc: Indonesia
العربية: إندونيسيا
aragonés: Indonesia
arpetan: Endonèsie
asturianu: Indonesia
Avañe'ẽ: Indonesia
Aymar aru: Indunisya
azərbaycanca: İndoneziya
تۆرکجه: اندونزی
Bahasa Banjar: Indunisia
Bân-lâm-gú: Ìn-nî
Basa Banyumasan: Indonesia
башҡортса: Индонезия
беларуская: Інданезія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Інданэзія
भोजपुरी: इंडोनेशिया
Bikol Central: Indonesya
Bislama: Indonesia
български: Индонезия
Boarisch: Indonesien
bosanski: Indonezija
brezhoneg: Indonezia
буряад: Индонези
català: Indonèsia
Чӑвашла: Индонези
Cebuano: Indonesia
čeština: Indonésie
Chamoru: Indonesia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Indonesia
Chi-Chewa: Indonesia
chiShona: Indonesia
chiTumbuka: Indonesia
corsu: Indunesia
Cymraeg: Indonesia
dansk: Indonesien
davvisámegiella: Indonesia
Deutsch: Indonesien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިންޑޮނޭޝިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Indoneziska
eesti: Indoneesia
Ελληνικά: Ινδονησία
español: Indonesia
Esperanto: Indonezio
estremeñu: Indonésia
euskara: Indonesia
eʋegbe: Indonesia
فارسی: اندونزی
Fiji Hindi: Indonesia
føroyskt: Indonesia
français: Indonésie
Frysk: Yndoneezje
Gaeilge: An Indinéis
Gagauz: İndoneziya
Gàidhlig: An Innd-Innse
galego: Indonesia
Gĩkũyũ: Indonesia
ગુજરાતી: ઈંડોનેશિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इंडोनेशिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-nì
한국어: 인도네시아
Hausa: Indonesiya
Hawaiʻi: ‘Inidonesia
Հայերեն: Ինդոնեզիա
हिन्दी: इंडोनेशिया
hornjoserbsce: Indoneska
hrvatski: Indonezija
Ilokano: Indonesia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইন্দোনেশিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Indonesia
interlingua: Indonesia
Interlingue: Indonesia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐄᓅᓯᐊ
Iñupiak: Indonesia
isiZulu: I-Indonesia
íslenska: Indónesía
italiano: Indonesia
עברית: אינדונזיה
Basa Jawa: Indonésia
kalaallisut: Indonesia
Kapampangan: Indonesia
ქართული: ინდონეზია
kaszëbsczi: Jindonezjô
қазақша: Индонезия
kernowek: Indonesi
Kinyarwanda: Indonesiya
Kiswahili: Indonesia
Kongo: Indonesia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Endonezi
Kurdî: Îndonezya
Кыргызча: Индонезия
кырык мары: Индонези
Ladino: Indonesia
лезги: Индонезия
لۊری شومالی: أندونئزی
Latina: Indonesia
latviešu: Indonēzija
Lëtzebuergesch: Indonesien
lietuvių: Indonezija
Ligure: Indonexia
Limburgs: Indonesië
lingála: Indonezí
Livvinkarjala: Indonezii
la .lojban.: bidgu'e
lumbaart: Indunesia
magyar: Indonézia
македонски: Индонезија
Malagasy: Indonezia
മലയാളം: ഇന്തോനേഷ്യ
Malti: Indoneżja
Māori: Initonīhia
მარგალური: ინდონეზია
مازِرونی: اندونزی
Bahasa Melayu: Indonesia
Baso Minangkabau: Indonesia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Éng-nà̤
Mirandés: Andonésia
монгол: Индонез
Dorerin Naoero: Indonitsiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Idonisia
Nederlands: Indonesië
Nedersaksies: Indonezie
नेपाल भाषा: इन्दोनेसिया
Napulitano: Indonesia
нохчийн: ХӀиндонези
Nordfriisk: Indoneesien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Endonesya
norsk: Indonesia
norsk nynorsk: Indonesia
Novial: Indonesia
occitan: Indonesia
олык марий: Индонезий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Indoneziya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇੰਡੋਨੇਸ਼ੀਆ
Pangasinan: Indonesiya
پنجابی: انڈونیشیا
Papiamentu: Indonesia
Patois: Indoniija
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឥណ្ឌូនេស៊ី
Picard: Indonésie
Piemontèis: Indonesia
Tok Pisin: Indonisia
Plattdüütsch: Indonesien
polski: Indonezja
português: Indonésia
Qaraqalpaqsha: İndoneziya
qırımtatarca: İndoneziya
română: Indonezia
Runa Simi: Indunisya
русиньскый: Індонезія
русский: Индонезия
саха тыла: Индонезия
Gagana Samoa: Initonesia
संस्कृतम्: इण्डोनेशिया
Sängö: Ênndonezïi
Scots: Indonesie
Seeltersk: Indonesien
shqip: Indonezia
sicilianu: Indunesia
Simple English: Indonesia
SiSwati: INdonesiya
slovenčina: Indonézia
slovenščina: Indonezija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їндонисїꙗ
ślůnski: Indůnezyjo
Soomaaliga: Indunisiya
Sranantongo: Indonesikondre
српски / srpski: Индонезија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indonezija
Basa Sunda: Indonésia
suomi: Indonesia
svenska: Indonesien
Tagalog: Indonesia
Taqbaylit: Indunisya
tarandíne: Indonesie
татарча/tatarça: Индонезия
తెలుగు: ఇండోనేషియా
tetun: Indonézia
тоҷикӣ: Индонезия
Türkçe: Endonezya
Türkmençe: Indoneziýa
удмурт: Индонезия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨕᨗᨉᨚᨙᨊᨔᨗᨕ
українська: Індонезія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندونېزىيە
Vahcuengh: Yindunizsihya
vèneto: Indonexia
vepsän kel’: Indonezii
Tiếng Việt: Indonesia
walon: Indonezeye
West-Vlams: Indonesië
Winaray: Indonesia
Wolof: Endoneesi
ייִדיש: אינדאנעזיע
Yorùbá: Indonésíà
粵語: 印尼
Zazaki: İndonezya
Zeêuws: Indonesië
žemaitėška: Induonezėjė
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛndonezi