Indian Space Research Organisation

Indian Space Research Organization
Indian Space Research Organisation Logo.svg
ISRO logo (adopted in 2002)[1][2]
AcronymISRO
OwnerDepartment of Space, Government of India
Established15 August 1969; 49 years ago (1969-08-15)
(1962 as INCOSPAR)
HeadquartersBangalore, Karnataka, India
Primary spaceportSatish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota (SHAR), Andhra Pradesh, India
Mottoमानव जाति की सेवा में अंतरिक्ष प्रौद्योगिकी (Hindi)
IAST: Mānav Jāti Kī Sevā Men Antarikṣa Praudyogikī
(Space technology in the Service of humankind.)
AdministratorDr. K. Sivan, Secretary (Space) and Chairman, ISRO[3]
BudgetIncrease 10,783.42 crore (US$1.5 billion)(2018–19 est.)[4]
Websiteisro.gov.in

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, /) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration."[5]

Formed in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) established in 1962 by the efforts of independent India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and his close aide and scientist Vikram Sarabhai. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space activities in India.[6] It is managed by the Department of Space, which reports to the Prime Minister of India.

ISRO built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975.[7] It was named after the Mathematician Aryabhata. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.[8][9]

ISRO sent a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 and a Mars orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission, on 5 November 2013, which entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its first attempt to Mars, and ISRO the fourth space agency in the world as well as the first space agency in Asia to reach Mars orbit.[10] On 18 June 2016 ISRO set a record with a launch of 20 satellites in a single payload, one being a satellite from Google.[11] On 15 February 2017, ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single rocket (PSLV-C37) and created a world record.[12][13] ISRO launched its heaviest rocket, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), on 5 June 2017 and placed a communications satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this launch, ISRO became capable of launching 4 ton heavy satellites.

Future plans include the development of Unified Launch Vehicle, Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, development of a reusable launch vehicle, human spaceflight, controlled soft lunar landing, interplanetary probes, and a solar spacecraft mission.[14]

Formative years

Vikram Sarabhai, first chairman of INCOSPAR, which would later be called ISRO.

Modern space research in India is most visibly traced to the 1920s, when the scientist S. K. Mitra conducted a series of experiments leading to the sounding of the ionosphere by application of ground-based radio methods in Calcutta.[15] Later, Indian scientists like C.V. Raman and Meghnad Saha contributed to scientific principles applicable in space sciences.[15] However, it was the period after 1945 that saw important developments being made in coordinated space research in India.[15] Organised space research in India was spearheaded by two scientists: Vikram Sarabhai—founder of the Physical Research Laboratory at Ahmedabad—and Homi Bhabha, who established the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1945.[15] Initial experiments in space sciences included the study of cosmic radiation, high altitude and airborne testing, deep underground experimentation at the Kolar mines—one of the deepest mining sites in the world – and studies of the upper atmosphere.[16] Studies were carried out at research laboratories, universities, and independent locations.[16][17]

In 1950, the Department of Atomic Energy was founded with Homi Bhabha as its Secretary.[17] The Department provided funding for space research throughout India.[18] During this time, tests continued on aspects of meteorology and the Earth's magnetic field, a topic that was being studied in India since the establishment of the observatory at Colaba in 1823. In 1954, the Uttar Pradesh state observatory was established at the foothills of the Himalayas.[17] The Rangpur Observatory was set up in 1957 at Osmania University, Hyderabad. Space research was further encouraged by the technically inclined Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru.[18] In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik and opened up possibilities for the rest of the world to conduct a space launch.[18]

The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was set up in 1962 by Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister.[19]

Other Languages
भोजपुरी: इसरो
Cymraeg: ISRO
ગુજરાતી: ઇસરો
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indijska svemirska istraživačka organizacija
ತುಳು: ಉಪಗ್ರಹ